1916
LAND WAR IN THE AGE OF MACHINES: 1914-1918

 
1 Introduction   2 Movement   [3 Firing]   4 Morale   5 Assault   6 Artillery

Small Arms Fire · Direct Artillery Fire · Hit Results · Line of Fire
Small Arms Fire Modifiers · Direct Artillery Fire Modifiers · Special Fire Rules
 

« 3.1 Small Arms Fire
Infantry - Each personnel unit fires as a whole and may execute one fire die roll per fire sequence. Hence, the larger a unit, the more inefficient its fire effect. An infantry unit may fire at full strength if more than two-thirds of its bases have line of sight to any part of the target. Unit bases which do not have line of sight to the target may not fire. This would mean that a six base unit with one masked base would fire full effect, but with two bases masked would fire as two-thirds of a unit. The masked bases may not fire at another target (units may not split their fire, sorry there is a reason for that). Line of sight in all these cases may be maintained through other bases in the same unit, but not through bases of other units or through blocking terrain.

Other - Each machine gun base also fires as a unit, and may execute one fire die-roll on the Small Arms Fire chart when firing at personnel targets. Vehicle mounted machine guns also roll on the same small arms fire chart. Mounted cavalry may not fire small arms.

Small Arms Ranges - See the Base and Range Chart for a master list of all weapon ranges.

« 3.2 Direct Artillery Fire
Towed cannons, vehicle-mounted cannons and trench mortars may only conduct direct fire combat. Direct fire means the firing base must have a direct line of sight to its target's position. This on-board artillery fire is conducted using the Direct Artillery Fire chart. Each such artillery base may fire once each turn, simultaneously rolling two hit dice and one kill die (no pun intended). Modify the hit result using the To Hit modifiers, and adjust the kill result using the To Kill modifiers. The To Hit die result box shows whether the modified die roll achieves a hit or a miss. The To Kill die result box shows the K, D and I results explained below, as well as the None result, which of course represents no effect.

Direct Artillery Ranges - See the Base and Range Chart for a master list of all weapon ranges.

« 3.3 Hit Results
Each Kill result (K) will destroy the target base, or one base of a targeted unit. A Damage result (D) will damage the target base, or one base of a targeted unit. If the damaged base belongs to a personnel (infantry) unit which already has one damaged base, combine the two damage hits into one Kill and remove one base of the target unit. Infantry units can never have more than one damaged base each. Damaged vehicle bases retain their mobility, but their fire ability is impaired. Immobilized results ( I ) only happen to vehicles (include towed artillery). Immobilized vehicles may not move until repaired. An immobilized vehicle base must roll for crew bailout using the morale chart. Machine gun and mortar bases are killed when hit. Each machine gun base may be resurrected once by immediately removing the closest infantry base from the same battalion and using that base to reconstitute the machine gun section.

Removing killed bases - In the case of small arms fire losses, the bases removed should be those closest to the firing unit. The exception to this is for units suffering the effect of a packed target and/or enfilade bonus. In these cases, the "packed" bases (those within the 10 yard close-range of each other) which are closest to the enemy should be removed first. This is an important distinction because it can result in the thinning of a unit and resulting loss of enemy fire effect even during the course of a fire phase.

« 3.4 Line of Fire
Infantry units may not fire through the bases of other sub-units, but they may fire through their own (i.e. - units may fire to full effect while two or more stands deep). Machine guns may fire through units belonging to their own battalion only if the battalion has great or outstanding training. A mortar section may only fire onto an enemy base which can be directly observed either by the mortar section itself or by a friendly base which is within 120 yards and line-of-sight of the mortar. Towed artillery and vehicle mounted cannon may not direct fire through personnel bases which are erect (e.g. - not prone or rushing).

All units may fire up to a total of 60 yards through full cover (i.e. - woods, buildings, scrub, etc.) if the target unit is spotted. Units in cover are spotted if they: a) Have fired or moved while in cover, or b) Are within 120 yards of an enemy reconnaissance unit, or 60 yards of any other enemy unit. All units which are in the open, firing or moving, are always considered spotted and may be fired upon by any enemy unit with a direct line of sight to the them.

Fields of Fire - Units and bases have the following arcs of fire available to them;
360 degrees: Infantry (rifles), Light machine guns, Flamethrowers, Anti-tank rifles, Turret mounted weapons (FT-17, etc.).
180 degrees: Field guns, Trench mortars, Heavy machine guns, Medium machine guns, Pillboxes.
90 degrees: Fixed tank weapons (Mark IV, Whippet, Schneider, etc.), Bunker positions.
All fields of fire are measured off the appropriate front or side edge of a combat base or model.

Prone Units - Units and bases which are prone cannot fire if they are occupying trenches, pillboxes or bunkers. Units moving through trenches are assumed to be crouching and so they also may not be fired upon. Once halted, they must declare either prone or standing status. If prone, they in turn cannot be fired upon by small arms fire.

« 3.5 Small Arms Fire Modifiers
The Small Arms Fire Chart is used for infantry and machine gun fire against personnel targets. All chart modifiers are cumulative, and are defined as follows:

  • Enfilade - May only be used against infantry units which are in close order (bases touching) or whose enfiladed bases are within 10 yards of each other at the time the die is rolled. For a machine gun section to receive this modifier, a portion of its base must have line of fire on and lie within the flank zones of at least two infantry stands belonging to the target unit. For infantry units to receive this modifier, half or more of the unit's firing bases must lie within the flank zones of at least two infantry stands belonging to the target unit.
  • Hmg - Firing base is using a belt-fed, water-cooled heavy machine gun.
  • Lmg - Firing base is using a clip or drum-fed, air-cooled light machine gun.
  • At packed target - The unit being fired upon has any bases which are within 10 yards of each other at the time the die is rolled. All "packed" bases in question must lie within the line of fire of the firing unit. Groups of horses for dismounted cavalry are also considered to be packed targets.
  • At rushing - Half or more of bases in the target unit used the rushing mode of movement during their last move phase.
  • At prone - Half or more of bases in the target unit are prone.
  • At soft, solid or hard cover - Half or more of the target is in corresponding cover type. Each tank chassis gives solid cover to any one personnel base behind it, and field gun shields offer solid cover protection to their gunners (e.g. - guns with shields count as solid cover personnel targets). Note the cumulative effect of cover; a shielded field gun which has been entrenched receives a solid cover bonus for having a gun shield, and also a hard cover bonus for being entrenched.
  • Weak or Remnant unit firing - If not all bases in a unit are able to fire because they are masked (blocked) or killed, the unit must suffer one of the following modifiers: A unit with two thirds or less of its bases available fires as a weak unit and suffers a minus two to its die roll. A unit with one third or less of its bases available fires as a remnant unit and suffers a minus four to its die roll. A unit with more than two thirds of its bases still available fires as full strength.
  • Moving-Firing Personnel - The firing unit moved or will move during the current turn. Note that if the defending player fires his units without adding this modifier, those units may not move during their pending movement step.
  • 200 to 600 Yard Range - The closest point of the target being fired upon is 200 to 600 yards distant from the closest point of the firing unit. Note that in the combat charts these ranges are quoted in inches according to the respective scales.
  • Demoralized - The firing unit is demoralized

« 3.6 Direct Artillery Fire Modifiers
These modifiers apply to the Direct Artillery Fire Chart, which covers the firing of tank guns, towed cannon and mortars. It also applies to heavy machine guns which fire upon lightly armored vehicles.

Weapon
Size Index
Actual
Size
1916
Shell Size
Category
Machine guns 0
ATR, 2cm 1
4cm 2
5cm 3
6cm 4
8cm 5
9cm 6
10cm 7
12cm 8
15cm 9
Lt.Mortar 1
Med.Mortar 3
H.Mortar 5
  • Small/Large target - Target base is identified in the equipment lists as a small or large vehicle or weapon.
  • At stationary in open - Target base is not in any cover or moving.
  • At solid or hard cover - Target base is in cover. Note that open cover does not protect against area weapons.
  • At packed infantry - An infantry unit being fired upon has any bases which are within 10 yards of each other at the time the die is rolled. All "packed" bases in question must lie within the line of fire of the firing unit. Groups of horses for dismounted cavalry are also considered to be packed targets.
  • 600 to 1200 yard range - Closest point of target unit is 600 to 1200 yards from the closest point of the firing unit. Note that in the combat chart these ranges are quoted in inches according to the game scale for the respective chart.
  • Moved - The firing unit has moved or will move during the current turn. Note that if the defending player fires his units without adding this modifier, those units may not move during their pending movement step.
  • Demoralized - Fire unit is demoralized.
  • Damaged - Firing base is damaged.
  • Under 200 yards - Closest point of target unit is within 200 yards of closest point of firing unit. Note that in the combat chart this range is quoted in inches according to the game scale for the respective chart.
  • At flank/rear - Any part of firing unit is within the flank or rear sectors of a vehicle target.
  • Weapon size: - Modifies chances of scoring a kill according to weapon size. Weapon size equivalents are shown above right:


« 3.7 Special Fire Rules
Machine Guns - Machine gun bases may not fire on the same turn that they have moved. They may not fire upon enemy machine guns if enemy infantry/cavalry targets are closer. During the small arms fire roll, any 1 result causes that machine gun to immediately roll for a jam. If the second roll is also a 1, the gun jams and can be repaired on any following turn on a roll of 1 (one roll max. per turn, machine gun base must remain stationary while trying to unjam). If firing in an anti-tank roll, any 1 result on the Kill die roll will also result in a check for jamming in the same manner as for small arms fire.

Heavy machine guns may fire upon tank targets (including armored cars, etc.). When doing so, they must use the Direct Artillery Fire Chart , subject to all standard modifiers. Heavy machine guns fire as a 0 class weapon when engaging tanks, and as a 1 class weapon when engaging armored cars. Note that medium and light machine guns may not fire in any anti-tank capacity.

Trench Mortars - Trench mortar bases may not fire until they have been set up, see the movement rules for trench mortar movement and setup times. When firing, trench mortars use the Direct Artillery Fire Chart. Minimum firing range is 120 yards, maximum firing range is 1200 yards.

Passing Fire- This occurs when a unit fires at enemy units conducting their movement phase. Units which "pass fire" must be marked and may not fire during their next fire phase. Enemy vehicles must move more than 120 yards in order to be eligible as a passing fire target. Enemy infantry may be pass fired upon if they move more than 20 yards in view of an enemy unit (e.g. - infantry crawling along the bottom of a trench may not be fired upon, etc.).

Rapid Fire Reward - Any direct fire artillery which rolls a natural 12 (boxcars) on the hit dice for the direct artillery chart is allowed to immediately fire a second time. It may fire at the same base as before or select any other valid target. Any direct fire artillery known for rapid fire capabilities (such as the French 75mm field guns and late-war automatic mortars) receives the same reward on a natural 9 or higher, and receives two more fire rolls on a natural 12. Additional rapid fire die rolls are not qualified for further rapid fire rewards.

Flamethrowers - Bases equipped with flamethrowers may fire on and destroy any one enemy base each turn. This occurs regardless of the target's protection and counts as an attack. This means that a qualified base must fire either its small arms or flamethrowers, but not both. A flamethrower must roll 1D6 whenever used, if a 1 or 2 is rolled, that base has run out of fuel for the rest of the game or until a lull allows it to refill and re-activate. Flamethrowers are considered to be assault weapons, and share all standard assault weapon features and abilities.

Pillboxes & Bunkers - A pillbox gives hard cover to one machine gun or infantry base. A bunker gives hard cover to two machine guns, three infantry bases or one towed cannon base. Large bunkers which hold more than this should be addressed in the individual scenarios.

Air Strikes - Air strikes are conducted during the controlling player's fire phase and inflict casualties using the Area Weapons chart in the same manner as on-call artillery fire. To conduct an attack, place the attacking aircraft base at the desired position on the game board and roll for all enemy bases fully or partly within the 120 yard zone directly to the front of the leading edge of the attacking aircraft base. Air strikes are removed immediately after use and are not reusable.

 
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