4.1 Assault Procedure
units which have approached to within 25mm of each other during movement must
now enter into the assault phase. This phase represents the musket volleys,
melees, charges and countercharges which occur in the confusion of close
combat. Each unit involved in an assault must apply its entire strength to that
assault if the nearest portion of an enemy unit is within 25mm of its facing
arc. This is defined as primary contact. A unit whose nearest
portion is more than 25mm but less than 50mm must apply half of its strength
(rounding down) to the assault. This is called incidental contact. A
unit's facing arc is measured 45 degrees from the rear corners of its
furthest left and right front base(s), up the sides of those bases and from the
front edges all front bases. Only a unit facing within 25mm of an enemy unit or
units is able to initiate an assault, thereby drawing in nearby
incidental units. Purely incidental contact cannot initiate an assault.
Skirmisher markers do not interfere with assault proximity and do not apply
their bases to the assault. Each assault is resolved on the Assault section of
the Combat Chart as follows:
Step 1: Each player totals his modifiers and
applies them to the result of one ten sided die roll.
Step 2: The
attacker then subtracts the defender's modified result from his own to arrive
at the die roll difference.
Step 3: Refer to the die roll
difference values shown in the die roll box located down the center of the
assault section of the Combat Chart. High rolling attacker values (winners) are
in the upper half and low rolling attacker values (losers) are in the lower
Step 4: Immediately apply the results to the involved units
according to the attacker type. All initial assaults must be resolved before
breakthrough assaults and continuing movement are carried out. Mark
breakthrough locations before moving on to resolve other assaults.
5: Leaders which have been attached to units involved in the current
assault round must roll for possible injury or death. A leader who has led an
emergency rally must also roll for injury if the assault in question occurred
as a result of the emergency rally.
Step 6: After the first "round"
of assaults is resolved, conduct all breakthrough movements and other mandatory
movements (if any) required by the assault results. Then repeat steps 1 through
5 for any additional assault rounds which are required to be
Some assault results may trigger several rounds of die
rolling before final resolution. As long as enemy units continue to face within
25mm of each other, they will continue to trigger new assaults. Stalled
assaults occur when units required by the rules to continue or breakthrough
have insufficient movement to do so (see assault results).
| Assault Ranges - In the example at left, the attacking
infantry unit A is assaulting defending infantry unit Y because it is facing
within 25mm of that unit. Even though A is past units Y's flank line, the
defending unit is not outflanked because it is in buildings. Also, because
another friendly unit (Z) is facing within 50mm of the assaulting unit, the
defenders have 4 bases involved in the assault (all of Y and half of Z), which
prevents unit Y from being outnumbered. Note that even had it been left
unsupported, unit Y could never have been considered outnumbered by more than
3:2 because it is in buildings.
Assaulting Units - In the example at right, units A
and X are assaulting each other, and units B and Z are assaulting each other.
Unit Y however, is in the proximity of two enemy units. Units will always be
involved with enemy units which are closest. So unit Y is involved in the B-Z
assault. Players could conduct all five units as one grand assault, but
only if both sides agreed. Otherwise, assaults must be broken down into the
smallest possible groups.
« 4.2 Special Rules
Breakthrough - Attacking units which are rendered out of primary assault
contact with enemy formations due to artillery or skirmish fire related
withdrawals may expend the balance of their remaining normal or assault
movement allowance to advance and/or establish assault contact with fresh
assault targets. Such local breakthroughs may not violate standing
divisional orders. Players intending to move qualifying units must declare so
at the start of the Assault Phase, and all such movements must be completed
before assault resolution begins.
Artillery - Each unlimbered artillery battery within
assault range of an enemy unit counts as one combat base in the same manner as
an infantry or cavalry base. A massed artillery battery (several batteries with
bases touching) counts as one unit, with each base also equalling one regular
combat base. A limbered artillery battery counts as one base, but may not
contribute to incidental assault contact.
Cavalry - Cavalry may not use or inflict the In
Line, Cavalry or Outnumbered assault modifiers when fighting
in or through rough terrain, buildings or against infantry squares. The chart
below outlines which modifiers are lost under these conditions:
in/through Rough Terrain
Type: Cavalry = If No, the cavalry unit(s) may not use their
respective Light, Medium, Heavy or Armored cavalry modifiers. In Line = If
No, the cavalry may not use the +1 modifier for being in line.
Outnumbered = If No, the unit which is fighting against the cavalry will
not suffer any outnumbered modifiers, regardless of actually outnumbered
in/through Rough Terrain = Use this column if half or more of the
assaulting cavalry bases are within rough terrain, moved through rough terrain
during the course of the current player turn, or if they are assaulting units
within rough terrain. Assaulting in Buildings = Use this column if the
units being engaged by the cavalry qualify as being within buildings. Solo
versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are attacking
infantry squares while unaccompanied by friendly infantry formations. With
Infantry versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are
attacking infantry squares while accompanied in the assault by friendly
infantry formations. The supporting infantry formations must be combat units
(not skirmish markers) and may be in primary or incidental assault
« 4.3 Assault Modifiers
modifiers are added or subtracted from the assault roll to complete a modified
assault roll. For optional assault rules, see the Assault section of the
Optional rules page, which addresses more advanced issues such as assault
averaging of both troop grades and cavalry types.
- Officer Leading Unit - A unit with an attached
leader receives that leader's value added to the assault roll. The unit must be
within the leader's chain of command unless the leader is
- Troop Grades - Attacker and/or defender add or
subtract the corresponding troop grade modifier if the greatest percentage of
bases present are elite, veteran, green or militia grade troops
- Cavalry Grades - Attacker and/or defender add to
the die roll if any friendly light, medium, heavy or armored cavalry is
present in the assault. Only the modifier for the heaviest cavalry unit present
- Morale Hits - Attacker and/or defender subtract
from the die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are disordered,
rattled, shaken or demoralized.
- Outnumbering Ratio - The combatants with the
lesser number of bases will subtract from the die roll if the outnumbered ratio
is equal to or greater than 3:2, equal to or great than 2:1, etc. Units in
buildings may not be outnumbered by enemy infantry by greater than 3:2
regardless of actual ratio. Units assaulted only in the rear may not inflict
outnumbered modifiers. See special cavalry rules for limitations on
- In Line - Attacker and/or defender add 1 to their
die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are from infantry or
cavalry units in line.
- Each Base Lost - Attacker and/or defender subtract
one point from their die roll for each of their own bases lost from
participating units so far during the player turn.
- Each Skirmisher Deployed - If the greatest
percentage of bases present belong to units with deployed/killed skirmishers,
attacker and/or defender subtracts one point for each skirmish base those units
have deployed or lost.
- Hit in Flank - Defender subtracts two from the die
roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are from outflanked units (if
assaulting unit finishes its move to assault with any part of its bases past
the defending unit's flank line). Void if target is hit in rear. Note
that infantry squares and units in buildings have no flank (i.e. - their flank
zone is considered part of the front).
- Hit in Rear - Defender subtracts four from the die
roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are from units hit in the rear
(assaulting unit finishes its move to contact with any part of its bases past
the defending unit's rear line). Note that infantry squares have no
rear. Units in buildings do have a rear.
||Cover: Stone buildings,
redoubts, fleches, stone walls, earthworks, heavy woods.
|B - Solid:
||Cover: Medium woods, light
stone wall or heavy wooden buildings.
|C - Soft:
||Non-Cover: Top of slope/ravine,
British infantry, saved fire. Cover: Groves, light wood
buildings, hedges, treelines
- Tactical Bonus - Attacker and/or defender add 1, 2
or 3 points to their die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present
qualify for one of the tactical bonuses shown here. Non-cover tactical
bonuses listed in Class C apply only toward defenders, and only during
assaults. Cover effects apply to both attackers and defenders. Covering
terrain also modifies artillery fire (see Artillery Fire Modifiers).
|Flank and Rear Examples - The
flank line for unit A is shown along the rear of the front bases,
parallel to the unit's front. The rear lines originate at the outer
rear base corners, perpendicular to the unit's front. Unit Y is in a
flanking position because part of one of its bases is past the flank line for
unit A. Unit Z is striking in the rear because part of one of its bases is past
the rear line for unit A. Units struck in both the flank and rear will only
suffer the worst of the two effects (-4), not both.
« 4.4 Assault Results
Losses - Both attacking and defending units may suffer morale hits, base
hits and panic hits as a result of their primary or incidental involvement in
an assault. All results for each "round" of assault combat are applied
simultaneously, as are the mandatory movements which may be required.
Morale hits - All primary and incidental
units involved in an assault will suffer the number of morale hits called for
by the assault chart results. Affected units are immediately marked with the
corresponding hits markers to show their new condition. All requirements to
roll again are done so with modifiers adjusted for the new morale
Base hits - Base hits inflicted due to assault
results are first distributed randomly among units which were within closest
primary contact with the enemy units. Only if all primary contact bases are
lost will remaining unassigned base hits be allotted to incidental contact
units. Bases lost due to base hits are removed immediately from play, and
before surrender results are applied.
Panic Hits - Panic hits
control the manner in which units respond to their assault loss. To find a
unit's panic response, refer to the corresponding panic level in the Panic
Index, and cross reference the troop grade of the losing units with that panic
level's assault column. The results shown indicate the type of mandatory
movement which the losing unit must conduct, either W (withdrawal), F (fall
back), Re (retreat) or Rt (rout). The same result also may include a loss
number, which represents the number of bases which must surrender to the
enemy as a result of the assault. Losers required to surrender bases will do so
only after base hits have been withdrawn. Surrendering bases are taken first
from primary contact units of the lowest troop grade present, followed by
higher troop grade bases within primary contact. Only if all primary contact
bases are lost may remaining "unassigned surrenders" be taken from incidental
Example: A veteran grade unit suffers two panic
hits as a result of an assault. The controlling player will refer to the second
line of the Panic 2 index column (the second line corresponds with the
Veteran troop grade units). The Result column indicates an F,
meaning that the unit will fall back without further loss. If the unit had been
composed of green quality troops, it would have received a Rt-1 result,
which would result in one rout move, and the loss of one base as prisoners.
Carry Position - Units allowed to carry a position are allowed
to move half-way into the position originally taken up by the enemy units
before their departure. Carrying a position allows a unit a certain amount of
latitude to adjust their orientation, but only if they have sufficient movement
Continuing Movement - Assault results may
either be allow or order attackers to continue moving. While conducting this
continuing movement, they are subject to normal movement rules and may initiate
new assaults against other units. They may not violate or exceed their current
orders while completing the move, nor may they exceed their maximum movement
allowance as measured from the start of their movement phase. Units whose
assault results state that they must continue their assault movement
will move to the limit of their full assault movement (even if movement orders
are violated as a result) unless countermanded by a new assault result. Units
which use their assault movement bonus will suffer one morale hit at the end of
Breakthrough - A breakthrough allows assaulting
cavalry to break past or through a stationary defeated unit (if any remains)
and to conduct continuing moving. The cavalry may continue assaulting units in
this manner as long as it has the available movement and continues to achieve
assault results allowing further movement and action. Cavalry which remains in
primary contact with an enemy unit due to refusal to conduct a voluntary
breakthrough must conduct further assault rounds until the primary contact is
Break off - Allows assaulting cavalry to utilize their
remaining movement (if any) to move out of primary assault contact with the
Units unable to withdraw, retreat or rout away from the
enemy without coming in contact with other enemy combat bases will surrender.
All breakthrough, break-off and continuing assault moves
are carried out after the first assault round is completed. Subsequent assault
rounds are conducted in the same manner.
Stalled Assaults - Assaulting units which have
insufficient remaining movement to execute breakthrough or break-off orders are
stalled. Stalled units must conduct further assault rounds against their
neighboring opponents until they are no longer facing within the 25mm assault
range of each other.
Artillery effects - Unless separately mentioned,
artillery batteries suffer the same results other units involved in an assault,
and are subject to the same losses. If any separate artillery effects are
called for by the assault results, the involved artillery does not suffer from
the effects mentioned in the first part of the results. For example: With an
infantry attacker scoring a +7, defending artillery would not suffer 3M and 2P,
instead, they would be captured as called for using the artillery abbreviation.
If however, the same attacking infantry scored a +3, the artillery would suffer
the 2M and 1P as shown because that is the only result called for in the +2/+3
description. In the later case, the artillery would also be subject to possible
4.5 Emergency Rally
any assault, the commander of the losing side may use local unattached officer
figures to attempt an emergency rally of units which lost the just-ended
assault. Emergency Rallies may be attempted on any unit(s) within 8cm of the
rallying leader, and are conducted before moving the losing unit(s).
Step 1: Announce the Rallying leader.
Step 2: Roll on the leader injury chart using the +4 emergency rally
modifier and any other modifiers which apply. Note that the leading
attack/defense modifier and the emergency rally modifier should
never be used together, since leaders already attached (i.e. - leading) may not
conduct emergency rallies.
Step 3: If the leader survives, he may
roll to rally the friendly unit(s), applying double his normal value and any
other modifiers which apply. If the unit(s) rallies, a new assault round is
immediately resolved, with the rallied unit(s) occupying their original
positions, and the bonus for the leader applied as if he were attached to the
rallied forces (even though he is not).
Leaders may only conduct one emergency rally per assault
phase. They may however, simultaneously emergency rally several units who all
participated in the same losing assault round. Assaulting cavalry may ignore
successful emergency rallies and continue with a breakthrough or break-off
move. In either case, the rallied unit will reform in its original position and
facing, behind the assaulting cavalry if necessary. Infantry who successfully
emergency rally against cavalry may form square.
4.6 Injury and Disorder Charge Disorder - Units which use any of their assault bonus
movement (also known as charge movement) during the turn will suffer charge
disorder at that turn's end. Units suffering charge disorder suffer one
morale hit, but only after all assaults, emergency rallies and counterattacks
Injuries - Roll 1D10 for each leader who was within 8cm of any unit
involved in an assault during the current Assault Phase. Leaders who have
already rolled for injury due to direct participation in assault rounds or
emergency rallies are exempt from this final roll. Definitions for the injury
die roll modifiers appear in the Leader
Injuries & Withdrawal section of the Artillery & Skirmish Fire