The War Times Journal Home Page


0.0 Contents:
1 Introduction:
Scales, Equipment, Units, Formations, Battlefield, Start a Game
2 Command:
Chain of Command, Command Radiuses, Orders, Leaders, Rallying,
3 Maneuver:
Movement, Maneuvering, Forced Move, Movement Modifiers, Special Rules, Terrain Effects
4 Artillery & Skirmishing:
Skirmishers, Artillery Fire, Point Modifiers, Die Modifiers, Targets, Leader Death & Panic,
5 Assault:
Assault Procedure, Special Rules, Modifiers, Results, Emergency Rally, Death & Disorder,
6 Panic Test:
Panic Procedure, When to Test, Modifiers
Republique Battle Scene

« Republique 5.0
Updated June 3, 2020. Beta Test Edition.

Republique was designed to recreate large battles of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and complete them in a reasonable amount of time (e.g. - quickly). Most period battles can be played using these rules on a ping-pong table (roughly five foot by nine foot space), and the basing uses a common standard. The rules themselves have been used to rethink how a Napoleonic wargame can be carried-out. The goal is to get a reasonably accurate final result of the fighting. In order to do this in a reasonable time, we have streamlined the warfighting perspective to that of a corps or army commander. As a result, there are no volley fire calculations, all regimental combat is covered in general assault rounds which are driven to full resolution each turn. Skirmish fire has been abstracted to reflect its general effects, while still being depicted on the board as status markers (which look just like skirmishers). Artillery fire has been researched and calibrated to give the most accurate possible final battle results. For those who crave even greater historical detail, numerous optional rules are available, accessible from the main Republique index page.

« 1.1 Scale
The standard ground scale for Republique is defaulted to 15mm miniature play, where 36 scale meters is represented by 1cm on the game board (28mm equals 100 meters). Infantry and cavalry bases represent 550 men each. Artillery bases represent 12 guns each. Note that for game play, Republique artillery bases are still referred to as batteries even though most tactical-level artillery batteries of this period employed fewer guns. Each full turn represents approximately 40 minutes of battle time.

« 1.2 Equipment
All game play is conducted using ten-sided dice with the number range on the dice representing the numbers one through ten (1 - 10), this means that the 0 on the die represents a 10. A metric tape measure and firing arc are also needed for measuring and targeting. The most important equipment are the many miniatures and markers you will want to fight battles. Below are some guidelines which Republique uses for its gaming system:

Morale Markers - A common feature of many wargames are death caps, which are used by most rules to indicate losses on multi-figure bases. In Republique, these same caps can be used to indicate morale hits suffered by a formation. The caps should be colored white, yellow, red and black in order to indicate unformed, rattled, shaken and demoralized morale conditions respectively. Death caps are available at most hobby stores, although they can also be bought at industrial supply houses for a fraction of the cost ("death caps" are actually urethane protective caps used for various manufacturing processes). Slightly better looking markers for the battlefield are small 3/8" wood blocks sold at hobby stores. They can be painted the correct colors and have a clean look for placement next to units.

Marker Bases - Units wishing to execute special formations will need marker bases to indicate those actions. The two marker bases most needed for game play are skirmish markers and square markers:

Skirmish Markers - Skirmish markers are used to depict skirmishers who have deployed out of their parent unit. Unlike the square marker defined below, skirmish markers represent an extension of their parent unit's combat capacity, and the skirmish markers themselves may conduct attacks that affect the morale of enemy units. Each skirmish marker base may only sustain one base hit before being destroyed and removed from play. The best way to create a skirmish base is by mounting a single light infantry figure on a small, round base (see base sizes below).
In Square Markers - Square markers indicate that all of a formation's sub-units (usually battalions) are formed into squares, which are potent anti-cavalry defenses. Unlike skirmish markers, square markers do not represent an extension of a unit's combat capacity, and therefore they cannot be attacked or destroyed. However the unit declared to be in square will be subject to all of the advantages and disadvantages associated with this special formation (see Formations below). The best way to create an in square marker is to place a single line infantry figure on a small, square base - we use standard bearers to show a unit is definitely in square.
Other Markers - A few other markers which are not mandatory but which add flavor to the game include breakthrough markers, which can be used to show where assault breakthroughs have occurred, and saved-fire markers, which can be used to show artillery batteries which have rested and prepared their guns by remaining inactive for one turn. An excellent breakthrough marker is an officer figure, especially one which is waving his sword, exhorting his men forward. A saved fire marker can easily be made by gluing together a small stack of four BBs (small metal balls) and then painting them black. In order to prevent game-board confusion, optional markers should be used only for temporary situations or for stationary units.
Gaming Scales »  6mm
(18mm = 100 meters)
(28mm = 100 meters)
(36mm = 100 meters)
(54mm = 100 meters)
Scale Ratios »  .66 1.00 1.33 2.00
Measuring Systems »  Metric (mm) Imperial (inches) Metric (mm) Imperial (inches) Metric (mm) Imperial (inches) Metric (mm) Imperial (inches)
Infantry bases: 20 x 12 ¾ x ½ 30 x 20 11/8 x ¾ 40 x 25 1½ x 1 60 x 40 2¼ x 1½
Cavalry bases: 25 x 20 1 x ¾ 40 x 30 1½ x 1¼ 50 x 40 2 x 1½ 80 x 60 3 x 2¼
Artillery bases: 20 x 25 ¾ x 1 25 x 40 1 x 1½ 30 x 50 1½ x 2 50 x 80 2 x 3
Artillery Limber markers: 20 x 20 ¾ x ¾ 25 x 25 1 x 1 30 x 30 1½ x 1½ 50 x 50 2 x 2
Leaders: 12 x 20 ½ x ¾ 25 x 30 ¾ x 11/8 25 x 40 1 x 1½ 40 x 60 1½ x 2¼
Marker bases & skirmishers: 20 x 20 ½ x ½ 20 x 20 ¾ x ¾ 25 x 25 1 x 1 25 x 25 1 x 1
Gaming Scales refers to the name and associated ground scale for each scale category. Scale Ratios are the relational values which players may refer to for conversions. These ratios are necessary because the main rules text is written for the 15mm scale. Players wishing to interpret distance-related rulings for the other scales will need to multiply the distances quoted in the rules by the scale ratios shown above. The base sizes associated with each scale group are not absolute, and players may combine scales and bases for varying effects. An extreme example would be the use of numerous 6mm figures on the base family listed in the 25mm column.

Combat Bases - Combat bases make up the primary combat units used for game play, including infantry, cavalry and artillery formations. Most wargame figures will be glued directly to the bases, which should be cut from thin sheets of wood or metal. Refer to the Base Size Chart above for a full listing of all base sizes and game scales directly supported by Republique. All of these base sizes are standard, and are available in pre-cut form. The figure scales most commonly used for Napoleonic wargaming are 6mm (1/300), 10mm, 15mm and 20mm, although other scales such as 25mm are also widely used.

For game play purposes, unit composition is controlled by the number of combat bases, not the number of figures. This allows players to mount any number of miniatures they wish on their combat bases. Each base should also be marked on the upper rear or bottom with the name or number of the unit they represent. Infantry regiments will usually have a name or number. Brigades made up of weak regiments (a common situation for campaign armies) can use the name of the brigade commander or the number of the brigade. Cavalry brigades may also use the name of the brigade commander or senior regiment in the brigade. Artillery batteries should be marked with their size (heavy, medium or light). A more clinical identification alternative is to number all of your units using your own system (IE - unit 101 through 183) and then keep a list of what each number represents for that battle.

Each infantry combat base is removed from play after one base hit (B). Each cavalry or artillery base (also called a battery) may sustain two base hits before being removed from play. A cavalry or artillery base with one base hit is considered damaged and should be marked accordingly. Two damaged combat bases may not merge to create a single undamaged base. Only one damaged base at a time may exist in a formation, if another base hit is sustained the current damaged base is removed, leaving the parent formation with no damaged bases.

« 1.3 Units
Each unit in Republique is made up of combat bases which – as a group – make up its total strength and depict that formation's deployment area. The different branches of service have varying methods of deployment as explained below:

Regiments or Brigades?
Real life infantry regiments could become severely undermanned while on campaign, and to reflect this, brigades may occasionally be used to depict groups of weak regiments. During game play these brigades behave exactly like regiments, and are even referred to as regiments for purposes of explaining the rules. When deciding which historical formations to use (regiments or brigades), try to maintain average unit sizes of four or five bases, which are the optimal sizes for game play.

Note that a base hit does not necessarily mean that all 550 men are dead. General rule of thumb is each lost base roughly equals about 150 dead, 350 wounded and 50 deserters.

Infantry - The standard infantry formation is the regiment. The only ongoing exception to this is the British army brigade, which is employed in the same manner as a regiment. Note that many historical orders of battle include very weak field strength units. These reduced formations may result in whole infantry brigades and even divisions operating as regiments on the gaming table. Some infantry regiments may deploy their own screens of light infantry using skirmish markers. Light infantry regiments may normally deploy one skirmish marker per active combat base. Line infantry regiments may – if skirmish capable – deploy one skirmish marker per regiment. Light regiments which lose combat bases will have the number of skirmish markers which they may deploy also reduced by one for each combat base lost. For additional information see troop lists and optional rules.

Cavalry - The standard cavalry formation is the brigade. Before game play begins, players have the option of breaking up cavalry brigades and assigning their individual bases to other divisional level formations. The re-assigned base(s) must remain within the command radius of the new divisional commander but may otherwise move freely to support units within that division. These dispersed bases may be reformed back into their parent brigades by successfully rolling a change of orders and then moving the disparate units back to within the command radius of their original divisional commander or equivalent. These newly reconstituted cavalry brigades may join an assault on the same turn they reform, but only if no movement rules are violated as a result.

Artillery - Heavy artillery batteries represent 12 pound cannon and their supporting howitzers. Medium artillery batteries represent 6 though 9 pound cannon and their supporting howitzers. Light batteries represent 3 and 4 pound cannon and their supporting howitzers. Artillery bases in Republique represent fairly packed batteries (minimum space between cannon), which is why there are no modifiers downgrading counter-battery fire. It takes two base hits to destroy an artillery combat base. After the first hit, the base is marked as damaged and will be destroyed if it receives a second base hit.

Local Conditions
The battalions and regiments which make up Republique's combat units are assumed to be in formations best suited to, or under orders of, the local commanders. For example: If a cavalry brigade attacks an infantry regiment in "line" formation, and is bloodily repulsed, it is important to keep in mind that the line may have been a line of battalion squares!

« 1.4 Formations
Each group of bases representing a unit's deployment area are placed into specific Formations. Available formations include line, column, square and skirmish. Also available are echelon, a variation of a line, and mixed, a variation of column. The words "line" and "column" are only used to distinguish between shallow and deep unit dispositions, not to infer the formations of individual battalions or squadrons making up the regiments. Regardless of the regimental "formation," the sub-units of which they are composed are assumed to be in formations controlled by the local formation's commanders.

Formation Examples - At left are shown the major types of available formations, with the top of the page being the direction in which they are facing (note the Direction of Movement arrow). At upper left is shown the mixed formation, which is always two bases deep. At upper center is a unit in line, its stands are side by side and all facing in the same direction. At upper right is an echelon formation, which is a type of line used to angle a unit's flank line away from potential threats. Echelon may also be formed to the right instead of left (as shown), or off the center, which forms a wedge formation. At lower left is a two base unit with two skirmish markers deployed to its front. At lower center is an attack column, its stands are in single file facing the same direction. At lower right is a road column, it is formed into a T-shape, with all but one base placed into alternate facings. The one remaining base is placed at the "head" of the march column in the direction of movement. For movement and assault purposes, a road column's facing is controlled by the facing of the front guide base. For artillery targeting purposes however, the long axis of the column is used to align the enfilade arc (i.e. - when checking for status as a enfilade target, position the artillery arc off of the front and back ends of the road column, not off of the sides of the guide base).

Skirmish Markers - At lower left in the formation diagram is an example of a small two stand unit deploying two skirmish markers. These markers are used to indicate skirmish troops which have been thrown forward by their parent units. See the Maneuver section for more about allowed distance between skirmish markers and their parent formations. Not all units are able to deploy skirmishers, and players should consult the troop lists for more information on each nation's particular skirmishing abilities or lack thereof.

Infantry Square - Not shown are infantry squares, which are indicated using square markers in conjunction with existing formations. Only infantry units in mixed, line or echelon formations may use square markers. The markers themselves need only be placed in close proximity to a formation to indicate its "square" status. Units marked as being in square may move normally, but may not use the assault movement bonus, and must change to alternate formations (usually line or column) when passing through towns, woods, bridges and other obstacles. Units in square always count as enfilade artillery targets.

Higher Formations - The regiments and brigades discussed so far will usually be grouped into divisions for game play. These divisions will in turn be grouped into larger corps and armies or simply overseen by an overall commander. For a continuation of these next levels of battlefield organization see the Command section of the rules and the various troops lists posted on the main Republique page.

« 1.5 The Battlefield
The terrain systems most commonly used for wargaming employ plateau-shaped hill segments in 1" and/or ½" thicknesses. For game play, consider the 1" thick hills to be one level high/rough terrain and ½" hills to be one-half level high/normal terrain. Varying widths of masking tape may be used to show main and secondary roads. Colored felt, cardboard or cloth may be used to cover or outline the locations of woods, towns and fields. Scale trees and buildings may then be placed on these outlines, although these attractive additions are commonly pushed out of the way as large formations pass through.

Each section of buildings actually represents a city block, which is why they are outlined. Troops inside these areas are not "in a building" but actually in a built up area which may include anything from fence-lines, plots of land and taverns to churches, cemeteries and government buildings. Consult the Terrain Chart for the game-specific characteristics of various terrain types.

Unit Placement - When using plateau shaped hill segments, units within five centimeters (5 cm) of a hill's upper edge may spot and be spotted by those on lower levels, otherwise they are too far away from the edge of the plateau to establish line of sight. Treating gaming hills as the plateaus they usually resemble is the best way around most "ridge" arguments. This also creates dead ground along the bases of most hills, another realistic effect. Units within 10mm of the edge of a forest or town block are considered "at the edge." Units more than 10mm from the edge are considered inside the woods or town block.

Example 1: An infantry unit positioned 5mm from the edge of a town block is considered at the edge of the block. An enemy formation assaulting from outside the town is considered in the open. If the unit in town were positioned 15mm from the edge, an assaulting enemy formation could be considered to have entered the town and be attacking the unit in town, with both benefitting from the town's cover.
Example 2: An artillery battery placed within 10mm of a forest edge may fire upon targets as if it were in the open. If the same artillery battery were positioned 20mm inside the forest, it would still be able to fire on targets (note the terrain spotting depth of 25mm for medium woods) but it would suffer a minus for firing through cover. If the battery were more than 25mm inside the medium woods, it would not be able to fire out at all due to line-of-sight restriction imposed by the spotting depth.
Terrain Types & Effects  
Recommended color & material
(if any)
Terrain Feature Movement Height Cover Class Spotting Depth
Counts as Rough? No Assault Bonus Move for: Impassable to:
Light grey felt Light wood town block No Horse none ½ level C 25mm
Medium grey felt Heavy wood/light stone town block Yes Horse none ½ level B 25mm
Dark grey felt Heavy stone construction town block Yes All none 1 level A 10mm
Black felt Dense woods Double n/a All but skirmish markers 1 level A 10mm
Dark green felt Heavy woods Yes Horse artillery 1 level B 10mm
Medium green felt Medium Woods Yes Horse none 1 level C 25mm
Light green felt Light woods/ Orchard No Horse none ½ level C 50mm
- Stream banks Yes All Artillery none C  
- River banks Yes All Cavalry, Artillery none C  
Blue felt Lake/River n/a n/a All none -  
Blue/brown felt Marshland Double All Artillery none -  
Brown felt Mud Yes All none none -  
Brown corduroy Ploughed fields No All none none -  
Light tan corduroy Tall grass/Wheat/Corn No n/a none Blocks line of sight on same level only. -  
Grey heavy corduroy Vineyards Yes Horse Artillery C  

« 1.6 Starting a Game
Draw a map of the battle area - Each player must have a battle map, however crude, on which to write their command arrows. The maps may be simple or complex, so long as all players use the same map. Occasionally using inaccurate maps can add a little realistic spice, although a judge should be present to make the fateful rulings.

Fill out divisional locations and orders - Players record the locations of divisions and (if any) corps reserve formations and then "issue" orders to the units under their command. The resulting order/disposition maps should not be shown to the opposing players until the game's end.

Set up units - Players set-up their formations based on the map dispositions.

Attacker attempts to rally units (Leaders may move 15cm)
Attacker attempt to change orders
Both side attach leaders (only attacking players may move leaders)
Attacker replaces fallen leaders
Attacker Maneuver (attacker function only)
Attacker moves units according to orders
Artillery/Skirmish Fire
Both sides conduct simultaneous skirmish fire
Both sides conduct simultaneous artillery fire
Both sides check for leader casualties (hors de combat)
Demoralized panic test (if a demoralized unit suffered a P hit)
Resolve all assaults
Both sides declare emergency rallies & counterattacks
Both sides check for leader casualties (hors de combat)
All attached leaders automatically detached
Attacker applies charge disorder
Conduct divisional panic tests (internal panic).
Conduct inter-divisional panic tests (adjoining panic).

Preliminary bombardment (optional) - If both sides agree, all artillery may fire repeatedly and continuously until one or both players decides to start the regular turn sequence. Both sides must mutually agree to the bombardment. No saved fire steps may be executed during a bombardment and no other phases such as movement or assaults may be conducted during this preliminary bombardment.

Turn Sequence - Each full turn sequence is split into two player turns during which each side alternately acts as the attacker. In order to establish the initial player turn cycle, each side rolls one die. The high roller may decide which player becomes the first attacker, and the game begins with the first player turn. Players then alternate turns as attackers throughout the rest of the game, with each pair of player turns representing one full turn. Each full turn sequence represents approximately 40 minutes of combat time.

« 1.7 Turn Sequence
Command Phase- At the start of every player turn each attacking player for that side shall attempt to rally all units under their command which have morale hits. The attacking players may move leaders up to 15cm during the rally step in order to place them near units under their command in need of rallying. Next, the attacking player may attempt to change orders for their divisions. Next, players for both sides may attach leaders to units under their command. For the turn's attacker this is achieved by moving a leader figure up to 15cm into base-to-base contact with a unit under their command and declaring that leader to be attached. Leaders which have already moved during this phase in order to aid rallying may not move again in order to attach. Once attached, the leader will directly "lead" the unit in assault combat until it is automatically detached at the end of the assault phase. The current player turn's defender may also attach leaders, but may not move them to do so - the leader must already be touching bases with the unit he intends to attach with. While attached to a unit, a leader does not lend his value to any other units under his command. The last step in the Command phase is to replace dead leaders with a new leader figure per section 2.5.
Maneuver Phase- Attacking units may move according to their current orders. Units may only move within the constraints of their orders, up to their maximum movement allowance.
Artillery/Skirmish Fire Phase- Both sides start by conducting simultaneous skirmish fire per section 4.1. Note that skirmishers must have remained within assigned distances from their parent units per section 3.5. After all skirmish fire is conducted, resolve all artillery fire and assign resulting Morale (M) and Base (B) hits as required. Also mark any Panic (P) hits as required in section 4.6. All skirmish fire and artillery fire is considered simultaneous. Finish the phase by checking for leader casualties (hors de combat) and panic tests per section 4.7.
Assault Phase - Resolve all assaults per section 5.0 until all formations are outside of all-out assault contact range. Check for leader hors de combat and apply charge disorder if necessary.
Panic Phase- Check first for division panic per section 6, then check for inter-divisional panic. Conduct all involuntary moves before ending the player turn. Proceed to next player turn.
« 2.1 Chain of Command
Republique uses a very simple divisional level command system. Every infantry regiment, cavalry brigade and artillery battery needs to have a divisional commander in charge of it, and every divisional commander is controlled by someone who issues his orders. Even in the rare case of units without any official divisional commander, there will be a leader who fulfills the role of a divisional officer and who is considered such for game play purposes.

At the beginning of the French Revolutionary period, the highest permanent formations were usually regiments. Eventually, nations began grouping regiments into permanent or provisional divisions and by the later part of the wars, these divisions were grouped into permanent corps. Below is a short description of each of these systems and how they are represented in Republique. Related subjects such as orders and command radiuses are explained later in the chapter.

Regimental Pool System: Using this basic system, a commander-in-chief was allotted a general pool of units which he then doled out to various officers under his command. These subordinates then operated their own columns or "wings," either independently or as part of a larger army. During battles, the commander-in-chief would commonly assign these column commanders to the army's left flank, center, right flank and advanced guard.

In Republique, the wing or column leaders function as divisional commanders. They are issued game orders by the commander-in-chief, and all units assigned to them must remain within their respective command radiuses.

Divisional Wing System: This is similar to the previous method, except that column commanders were assigned divisions and brigades instead of regiments. Each division was likely to be a semi-permanent organization of infantry, artillery and/or cavalry.

In Republique, the divisional commanders operate as normal by keeping the various units under their command within the required command radiuses. Column commanders issue game orders to various divisions under their command. The commander-in-chief in turn issues written orders to the various column commanders.

Corps System: In this system, autonomous corps are assigned their own semi-permanent commanders and divisions. Each division is permanently assigned certain regiments and has organic artillery elements. Each divisional leader is given orders by the corps commander who may assign additional cavalry and/or artillery assets from the corps reserve.

In Republique, corps commanders issue game orders to the divisional leaders and may remove units (especially artillery) from the divisions and assign them to corps reserve formations. They may also assign various reserve units to the divisions, in which case the newly assigned units are subject to divisional commander radiuses. Corps level reserve formations with their own leaders operate in the same manner as divisions, receiving game orders from the corps commander. Corps (and army) reserve units without their own leaders must either be assigned to a division or assigned an aid-de-camp, who acts as their divisional commander. Army level divisions (usually reserve formations) receive game orders from army commanders in the same manner that member divisions of a corps receive game orders from their corps commanders.

« 2.2 Command Radiuses
All units under the command of a divisional leader must remain within that officer's command radius (CR), which is measured from the center of the front edge of the commanding leader's base to the center of each member unit's base frontage. The command radius represents a zone of communication within which a divisional leader may automatically control units under his command. Units within their divisional commander's effective radius will always respond to order changes on the same turn upon which those changes are successfully rolled for and changed. Units outside their divisional leader's command radius are considered to have exceeded the ability to communicate with them in a timely manner and have correspondingly limited courses of action. This command radius system applies only to divisional leaders and their equivalents, not to corps/army commanders, who do not have command radiuses. At the end of each assault phase, divisional leaders may adjust their positions by up to 8cm in order to keep within their command radius those units which conducted mandatory movements during the assault phase.

There are three command categories, each of which have established command radiuses and order change abilities. These categories are:
Efficient: 30cm command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 4 or higher.
Functional: 25cm Command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 6 or higher.
Cumbersome: 20cm command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 7 or higher.
Useless: 20cm command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 8 or higher.
Refer to the Troop Types by Nationality list for command category information for specific nations.

Leaving the CR - Units which leave their divisional leader's command radius because of a morale failure or assault result (i.e. - due to a mandatory movement.) will remain in their final position until they rally (if necessary). If after rallying they are still out of the CR, they must either remain stationary under an automatic defend order, continue withdrawing each turn if demoralized, or move to rejoin their parent formation. While separated from their division, they receive no benefits for rally orders which their division might be under and they may not execute divisional orders until they rejoin their division by re-entering the CR. They may however, receive rally bonuses from other leaders in their chain of command or other charismatic leaders who are within 8cm.

Leaving units behind - Units attempting to individually rally may be left behind by divisional leaders in order to maintain the pace of a move or attack order. Leaders attached to regiments continuing assaults may also leave distant units behind. The units left behind suffer the same restrictions as units which have retreated from a CR.

« 2.3 Orders
There are two types of orders used to transmit commands during game play: game orders and written orders. Game orders are issued to divisions by their respective corps or army commanders. Written orders are issued to corps or columns, effectively limiting direct communication between participating players. Divisions never receive written orders, and corps/armies (or their equivalents) never receive game orders. Put another way, written orders are for player-to-player communication, game orders are for players to control and move units.

Game Orders
At the beginning of each game, every division must be issued initial game orders by its respective corps/army commander. Official game orders are: attack, defend, reserve, move, retire and rally. Once game play begins, players wishing to change a division's orders must first pass an order change test, which may only be attempted during the command phase of the controlling player's turn. To attempt an order change, consult the Leaders section of the combat chart. The Change Orders column in that section indicates the die rolls required for a formation of that nationality to have its orders changed. Order changes include switching among order types, changing a command path in any way or changing the configuration of a defensive area. A corps/army commander may not change orders if they have attached themselves to a unit.

Move - Moving divisions mark their movement route on the battlefield orders map. This command path is drawn as a single line terminated by an arrowhead. The arrowhead indicates where the division will stop and automatically revert to a defend order, with the attitude of the arrowhead indicating the division's defensive facing. The command path itself may be as straight or sinuous as the commanding player wishes, although players should keep in mind that the more complex a unit's march route, the more subject the unit will become to unexpected events.

Each turn that a division is under move orders, it must have at least half of its units expend at least half of their available movement following the command path line until they reach their objective or if division formations face within 25cm of enemy units. While the division faces within this 25cm contact range, its units may move at any speed required to fight properly so long as the division's overall center line remains within 15cm of the command arrow's route shown on the map. Note that this does not allow the division to back out of contact range. It must either hold its position in front of the enemy - within 25cm - or advance and attempt to attack or move through the enemy in pursuance of its movement order. Units under Move command which have enemy formations approach their flanks or rear will continue to follow their original Move order unless the enemy units approach within 15cm of any member units. If an enemy formation approaches within 15cm (must be facing the moving division), the moving division will automatically convert to a Defend command and attempt to hold their current position until a change of order can be issued or the enemy formation is no longer a thread, at which point the formation will resume its original move command.

Attack - Attacking divisions are assigned specific enemy divisions to attack. This command path is drawn on the orders map as a single line leading to the target location, which is circled. Units under attack orders must be within 45cm of their target at the time of the order and must have at least half of their units expend at least half of their available movement moving toward the target formation. Once within 25cm of the assigned enemy, all infantry and cavalry units belonging to the attacking division must attempt to assault the attack target's member units. Artillery assigned to the division may operate freely within the division's deployment area, so long as their actions directly support the other units in the division (IE - Artillery assigned to the division may not be used to support other divisions). Any enemy formation currently spotted by friendly forces may be assigned as attack targets. Direct line-of-sight observation by the attacking formation is not required at the time the order is issued.

Member units of an Attacking division may find themselves in assault contact by enemy units not part of their target (especially those present on the attacking division's flanks). In such cases the member units will obey normal assault rules and may find themselves separated from the parent Attacking division. In such cases follow all normal rules for separated units. Members units of an Attacking formation may not take part in carrying positions, breakthroughs or overruns that come as a result of assaults they may have found themselves a part of due to such adjoining troop actions.

Unless its progress is directly obstructed by movement or assault of other enemy formations, an attacking division will ignore enemy formations other than those targeted by the Attack order (IE - they may not initiate assaults against formations outside of the targeted enemy division). Attacking divisions will attempt to track and follow their assigned target even if it attempts to move away, adapting their command path each command phase in order to correct for enemy position. If during the process of moving toward a targeted enemy formation an attacking division's progress is directly obstructed by a different (non-targeted) enemy formation within 25cm range, the attacking division's orders are treated as Move. Whilst within the 25cm range of the intervening enemy formation, the Attacking division is subject to all normal rules that apply to moving divisions that find themselves within contact range of an enemy. Once the enemy formation no longer presents an obstacle to the Attacking division, the division may – if capable – resume its pursuit of the original target unless the target is no longer spotted by friendly forces.

Defend - Divisions under defend orders must attempt to hold specific terrain or areas. Once placed, defending units may not voluntarily advance or withdraw beyond the overall defensive position (defined as their deployment area as marked on the orders map). The center-point of the division must remain within 15cm of the center-point of the deployment area shown on the orders map. The defending division may expand or contract its frontage, so long as it remains within 15cm of its original center-point.

Reserve/Restage - Units may only be given reserve status at the start of the game. Once play begins, no units may be given a reserve command. Divisions in reserve must be initially located at least 30cm away from enemy combat bases and must remain stationary at their original starting position unless:

a) They are issued new orders during the Command Phase. Reserve status divisions which are issued new orders will act on them without having to roll for change of orders.
b) Enemy units approach within 25cm to their front or 15cm from the flank or rear (same reaction ranges as the Move command). If approached by enemy units within the indicated ranges, a division in reserve will immediately revert to defend status, losing all benefits that are associated with being in reserve.
c) They restage. Reserve divisions may restage during their maneuver phase. They must pass an order change roll in order to restage and may not approach within 25cm of any enemy combat bases as part of their restage move. They are still considered to be in reserve status at the end of the restage move.

Retire - Retiring divisions mark their movement route on the battlefield orders map. The command path is drawn as a single line terminated by the division's new defense line. The defense line is where the division will stop and automatically revert to a defend order, with the orientation of the line indicating the division's defensive front.

Each turn that a division is under retire orders, it must have at least a quarter of its units expend at least half of their available movement following the command path line away from the enemy until they reach their objective. This allows up to three-quarters of the division to conduct retrograde movement facing the enemy as rear guards. Retiring divisions will ignore enemy formations unless they directly interfere with passage through to their new defense line. A division that has successfully changed its order status to Retire must roll for panic failure on the Panic & Rallying table.

Rally - All member units of a division under a Rally order may use their leader's value (instead of only those within 8cm) and they benefit from a general rally die roll modifier on the rally table. Rally orders automatically detach the divisional leader if at the time of the order he is attached to a unit. All units under a rally order must either be more than 25cm away from enemy combat bases, or must move beyond the 25cm "danger zone" from enemy combat bases on their first move opportunity (this may result in some units in the division already being at a safe distance and others obliged to move out of the danger zone at first opportunity). Divisional formations must be within their leader's command radius and must remain stationary during their maneuver phase in order to receive the divisional rally bonuses (both for leader and the general division rallying bonus). Units obliged to move out of the danger zone as part of a divisional rally order may still attempt to rally without the bonus rally modifiers.

A division assaulted while under a rally order reverts to defend status. The division commander may not attach to a unit if the division began that turn under a rally order. When all the units of a rallying division successfully rally, the division automatically reverts to defend status at their current position.

Written Orders
Because most games of Republique involve players who command groups of divisions, all orders above divisional level are handled using a simple written order system. Corps or army commanders whose on-the-board command figures are not in base to base contact with each other are not allowed to discuss battle events or issue verbal orders to each other during the game. Instead, they exchange written notes which are delivered via assigned courier figures which travel 48cm per turn. If a single player is in charge of several corps, he is not required to send messages to himself, the written message system is meant purely as a control over verbal contact between several players on the same side.

In order to send a written order, write the desired message on a sheet of paper and assign it to a courier figure during the Change Orders portion of the Command phase. This is best achieved by numbering all courier bases and then writing the respective numbers on the outside of the folded orders, which are then placed to one side until their delivery. During the following movement phase, the courier moves toward the leader to whom the message is aimed. At the beginning of the Change Orders segment following the courier's arrival, the message recipient may unfold and read the dispatched message.

« 2.4 Leaders
Leader figures can benefit units under their command by boosting assault performance and by helping units to rally more quickly. In order to lend their leadership value (if any) to an assault, leaders must be attached to one of the participating units. Leaders may only attach to units during the Command Phase, which is achieved by having a leader figure in direct base-to-base contact with a unit. Once attached, the leader remains that way until he is automatically detached at the end of the assault phase. While attached to a unit, a leader does not lend his value to any other units under his command. See the Assault section for details of attached leader benefits. The process of attaching and detaching leaders does not affect the movement of the unit to which the leader(s) attach.

During the Rally Phase, unattached leaders lend their value to all friendly units under their command which are within 6cm of their base. If the leader is a divisional leader and his division is under rally orders, his value will apply to the rally die rolls for all units within the division. Leader values are an indicator of both the particular abilities of the man in question, and also an expression of the army within which he commands. As a leader's value increase, his battlefield abilities also increase. Note that any leader whose value is 3 is considered charismatic:
"-1" leaders - A minus one leader is either widely despised or dangerously inexperienced, and is probably viewed by the troops as someone who is going to get them killed. His presence hurts more than it helps, and he is probably in his position because he is either a (probably young) member of the royal family, or a guerrilla leader who has assumed responsibilities out of his normal area. Minus-one class leaders only inflict their leader modifier on units under their direct command.
"0" leaders - A "Zero" leader is an average officer. He serves as a conduit for the transmission of orders so that his divisions and other formations can function, and his personal commitment and/or rapport with his troops is at a level that is expected for the circumstances - middle of the bell curve.
"1" leaders - A "One" leader is definitely a cut above the rest and probably belonged to the top half of his class (if he attended one). Class one leaders only give their leader bonuses to units under their command.
"2" leaders - A "Two" leader displays excellent abilities and is probably being groomed for higher positions. Class two leaders only give their leader bonuses to units under their command or to units in adjoining formations of the same corps or wing.
"3" leaders - A "Three" leader is at the very top of the command chain due to some combination of intelligence and personality. In progressive armies, he represents the cream of the crop of the officer corps, with an effective combination of ability, management technique and bravery. In conservative armies he represents one of a tiny handful of officers with the connections and charisma to both retain a command and become popular with his troops for one of several possible reasons. Class three commanders can give their leader bonus to all units of the same nationality, regardless of chain of command.
"4" leaders - A "Four" leader is either a super-genius, has a near cult-like charisma or both. They are extremely rare and should only be assigned to very special cases. For Republique, probably the only commander assigned this value should be Napoleon Bonaparte.
National Leaders - A national leader will usually be assigned one of the five previous ratings or one of their own, and can give their leader bonus to all units serving on the same side, regardless of nationality or chain of command.

«2.5 Morale and Rallying
Morale Conditions - During the game, units can suffer Morale Hits which degrade their effectiveness and increase the chances that they will attempt to spontaneously withdraw. The ideal unit condition is formed, which represents a unit fully under the control of its officers and able to perform as ordered. Formed units have no morale hits. If one morale hit is suffered, the unit becomes Unformed. If the unit has not rallied when another morale hit is inflicted, it will become rattled. If another morale hit is suffered, the units become shaken, and if a fourth morale hit is suffered the units finally becomes demoralized. Units can recover from morale hits by rallying, but they may also suffer more than one morale hit at once. Shown below are the possible morale conditions and their respective restrictions, if any.
Formed - Unit behaves normally.
Unformed -Unit may not change formation.
Rattled - Unit may not change formation or deploy skirmishers.
Shaken - Unit may not change formation or deploy skirmishers. Infantry will not attack cavalry or artillery. Cavalry will not attack artillery. Artillery will not prolong toward an enemy.
Demoralized - Unit may not change formation, deploy skirmishers or unlimber and will not voluntarily move toward any enemies. Artillery may limber, but only to move away from enemy units.Unit will suffer one panic hit for each additional morale hit inflicted upon it by skirmishers and/or artillery
Rallying - During the rally step of every command phase, the phasing side (current attacking players) must attempt to rally all of their units that have one or more morale hits. To make a rally attempt, follow the sequence listed below:
  1. Take note of the rally table number that matches the current condition of your unit. To do this, cross reference the troop grade and morale status, this is your old rally number.
  2. Roll one die and modify the result using the die roll modifiers listed in the Rally Table on the combat chart. Apply the modified result – positive or negative – to the previously noted old rally number. The resulting value is your New Rally Number.
  3. Match the new rally number with the value on the corresponding rally table line to which it is equal-to or greater-than.
  4. The morale rating listed at the top of the matching column from step 3 is the unit's new morale status. Note that it is possible for a unit's morale to improve, get worse or remain the same.
Example 1: A rattled average unit which has suffered 25% casualties rolls one die roll (1D10) with a result of a 5. The 25% casualty level modifies the result downward by two points (-2), reducing it to a 3. That value is applied to the unit's starting value of 7 (the starting value for an average, rattled unit will always be a 7). This raises the unit's value to a 10, improving its morale level to unformed. If the die roll had been a 4, the modified effect on the starting value would have been a 9, which would have been inadequate to improve the unit's morale. If the die roll had been a 1, the modified effect would have been a -1. This would have reduced the starting value to a 6, causing the unit to become shaken.

Example 2: The quick and easy way to remember - if you have an unformed average unit (10 value) you need to roll a 3 or higher to reform (13 value or higher makes you formed). The unformed average 10 is highlighted on the combat chart as your most common rally start point.

    Rally Die Roll Modifiers
  • Division under rally order - If a division is under a rally order and it currently has an active commander, each member unit receives a +4 to its rally die roll.
  • Leader within 6cm - Add the value of a leader's rating (rounding down) to the rally roll of any units within 6cm of the leader. This counts both for individual unit rally and divisional order rally.
  • Percentage of unit lost - Subtract from the rally die roll the amount that corresponds to the unit's current losses.

Replacing Fallen leaders - When a leader is killed, another may replace him during the controlling player's next command phase. The new leader will have a value of "0", and is only used to show the division's location and its ability to receive orders. Players may adjust their command structure to bring a more valuable leader into a vacated position. For example: If a "3" value corps commander is killed, instead of replacing him with a "0" rated commander, he could be replaced by one of his divisional commanders who might be a "1". The "0" value replacement is given command of the divisional position just vacated by the new corps commander.

No order changes are permitted for a formation during the command phase following the death of their leader. This rule applies to divisional, corps and army level formations and there are no exceptions. As an additional note, the charismatic leaders rule may not be used to "leverage" new orders by having leaders commandeer entire formations which are temporarily leaderless. That rule is for use only to change the structure of an intact chain-of-command, not to improve the condition of one which is damaged. For example;

Corps Commander Lannes is wounded and carried from the field at the end of an artillery fire phase. None of his divisional commanders may receive new orders during their next command phase because the replace leaders step comes after the change orders step. Even if Napoleon is within movement range of one of Lannes' divisions, and the commanding player really wants to change that division's orders, he can't (i.e. - Napoleon may not ride up to the division and verbally change that division's orders). The injury to Lannes is considered to have "damaged" not only the officer, but also the command and communications for his corps and its superiors. For further explanation, see the Questions & Answers section.

« 3.1 Movement
Each of the major troop types used for game play have movement allowances which represent the total normal distances they are allowed to move during any one player turn. These allowances are shown in the Movement Box on the Combat Chart. Normal infantry and cavalry allowances are 20cm and 35cm respectively. Each of these troop types may also use an assault movement bonus (also called charge movement), any portion of which may be used during the course of a turn. Normal infantry and cavalry charge bonuses are 8cm and 13cm respectively. This extra movement allowance permits a unit to cover a greater distance during its turn, but use of any of the extra assault movement will also cause the unit to suffer a morale hit at the end of the turn. Officers and couriers move at the speed of charging cavalry (48cm).

A unit's movement allowance is based on forward movement as measured from the front edge of its bases. Units may wheel (pivot) up to the limit of their movement, and may move obliquely (diagonally) up to 45 degrees from perpendicular (See figure at right). Moving backwards counts as rough movement (double normal cost). Reversing the facing direction of a unit does not count as a formation change. All movement penalties are cumulative. For example a unit operating on the Prussian system of formation change (see below) would move at one-quarter its normal speed if it were to wheel backwards.

« 3.2 Maneuvering
All troops used for game play are considered to be operating under one of the two basic systems of maneuver which were used during this era; the Prussian system and the French system. The outcome of a battle can be dramatically effected by the selection of maneuver systems employed. Players will not usually be able to choose which maneuver system to use. The time period within which a scenario is staged will usual be the deciding factor on which maneuver system is used by an army. The following outlines explain the two systems and how they are represents in Republique.

Prussian Maneuver System - The Prussian system of maneuver was used by most nations of Europe for a great part of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The system was a product of the pre-modern era and required a complex series of evolutions in order to complete most formation changes. Because a majority of European governments had closely imitated Prussian maneuver doctrine for years, all countries fighting against France during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Periods should be considered to be on the Prussian system unless otherwise specified. See the troop lists by nationality (listed on the main Republique page) for more information.

Wheeling and Oblique Movement

Unit A has just completed an oblique movement. Oblique moves may be conducted up to 45 degrees from perpendicular. Unit B has just completed a wheel. Wheeling movement is measured along the outermost edge of the wheel (i.e. - the longest).
Game Effects: In Republique, units on the Prussian system suffer the following movement limitations: Wheeling, oblique movement and passing through other combat units counts as rough (double normal cost). Moving sideways counts as double rough movement (quadruple normal cost). Changing formation subtracts 15cm from movement. Units may change formation at any point during their movement unless they are within general assault range (80mm) of enemy formations. Units on the Prussian system may not change formation within 80mm of enemy combat bases.

French Maneuver System - The French system of tactical maneuver was pioneered by Comte de Guibert after many years of research following the Seven Years War. An interesting historical note: Guibert's system was not known as the French system during this period. It was still considered a variation of the Prussian system and was referred to as such. However, the system itself and the grand-tactical innovations which accompanied it can be fairly separated into a separate system for purposes of game play.

This new system allowed units to split off by files to their new positions instead of awkwardly wheeling by sub-units. Such simple improvements greatly reduced the time needed to change formation, giving units who used the system a tactical advantage against enemies who still used a more rigid maneuver system. The new system was approved by the French government in 1791, and the benefits were quickly apparent. Russia, Austria and Prussia probably did not implement their versions of the system until after 1812. France's German allies were probably converted to the new system by 1808. Britain appears to have adopted their own variation of the Prussian system which was efficient enough to be rated in a similar category as the French system.

Game Effects: In Republique, units on the French system may wheel, pass through other units, move diagonally and move sideways at normal movement rates. Changing formation subtracts 5cm from movement. Units may change formation at any point during their movement unless they are within all-out assault range (40mm) of enemy formations. Units on the French system may not change formation within 40mm of enemy combat bases.
« 3.3 Forced Movement
Units required to move according to a game mandated action or result will do so regardless of their current turn status or movement allowance. These mandatory or "forced" moves may occur during the following conditions:
Movement Phase: Due to skirmish marker recall and/or evasion due to displacement by advancing enemy combat bases.
Artillery Phase: Due to morale hits converting to panic hits against demoralized units (high base hit count can result in multiple converted panic hits).
Assault Phase: Movement required by assault results, emergency rallies or army panic.

Retrograde forced movements such as rout, retreat and withdraw are not subject to terrain penalties or formation restrictions (rough move, about-facing, passing through friendly units, etc.), and will always be conducted out to the maximum distance required for that mandatory order. If the mandatory move cannot be executed without direct stacking of formations (two units sharing the same space) then the unit conducting the mandatory move must execute the next move option down the list.
Disengage = Move 9cm away from enemy, facing enemy.
Withdraw = Move 15cm away from enemy, facing enemy.
Fall Back = Move 22cm away from enemy, facing enemy.
Retreat = Move 22cm away from enemy, facing away from enemy.
Rout = Full charge move away from enemy, facing away from enemy.

The forced movement of evading or recalling skirmish markers may be conducted in any manner which does not violate the skirmish marker deployment rules. Mandatory advances may be conducted only to the limit of the moving unit's available movement remaining from the preceding Maneuver Phase of that Player Turn. Forced advances are in turn subject to cancellation by subsequent assault rounds which may change the advancing unit's actions.

« 3.4 Movement Modifiers
Road Movement = All infantry and cavalry units must be in a road column formation in order to benefit from road movement. Artillery units must be limbered in order to use the road movement bonus.
Rough Movement = Any unit with more than half of any one of its frontage bases within rough terrain will pay double the normal movement cost. Double normal movement cost means that each centimeter of distance moved under rough conditions actually costs two centimeters of that unit's available movement allotment for that player turn (see Terrain Effects). Units also pay double the normal movement cost when conducting difficult maneuvers (see Maneuver Systems).

A unit will pay a movement penalty for moving through rough terrain so long as any portion of it remains within that terrain (e.g. - the unit does not stop paying the penalty just because its front edge has exited the terrain). Note that in Republique, units in rough terrain are not considered unformed. This is because (for example) units in woods are "formed" correctly for their current terrain situation. When exiting those woods, the unit forms up for what would be considered normal in open terrain. This forming up time is why the unit experiences ongoing movement penalty until it has entirely cleared the terrain in question (also, portions of the unit are continuing to exit the woods while the front companies are forming up).
«3.5 Special rules
Skirmishers - Skirmish capable units may deploy their maximum allowance of skirmish markers at any time during their movement phase (see troop lists for unit skirmish allowances). Skirmish markers must remain within 80mm of their parent unit. They may not be placed in a position which puts enemy bases between them and their parent unit. In order to count as being in skirmish order, skirmish markers must remain at least 80mm away from each other (as measured between closest point between bases). Skirmish markers operating less than that distance but greater than one base width apart (generally 20mm) are considered Packed Skirmishers. Friendly skirmish marker bases may not operate at spacings less than one base width (one base width is minimum spacing).

Skirmish markers must always surrender their positions (i.e. - give ground) to enemy combat bases and – if displaced – have the following options:
Fighting Withdrawal: If displaced by enemy units which are not moving to initiate an assault that will involve their parent unit, the skirmish markers are only required to withdraw until the enemy units have completed their move. The skirmish marker(s) do not need to return to their parent unit. If the enemy formation has its own screen of skirmish markers, the skirmishers for both sides shall take up positions halfway between the parent formations or - if the defending skirmishers are at edge of cover or other major terrain feature - the attacking skirmishers shall halt just short of the feature (e.g. - advancing skirmish markers may not force defending skirmish markers from edge of cover; only combat bases can do that).

Assault Actions: If displaced by enemy cavalry which is moving to initiate an All Out assault that will involve their parent unit, the skirmishers shall immediately return to their unit (remove from play). If displaced by any enemy infantry units (all out or general assault) or enemy cavalry units conducting a general assault, the skirmish markers may remain deployed, subject to the same rules outlined above in Fighting Withdrawal. If the two main assault formations are extremely close to each other, friendly and enemy skirmish markers may intermingle at less than one base width spacing, however the participating bases for each side must remain at minimum spacing in relation to each other.
Any skirmish markers which fire during the artillery phase may not rejoin a parent unit at all for the remainder of that player turn.

Cavalry - Cavalry units may react to enemy units which advance to within 15cm of their front during an opposing player's Maneuver Phase. Reacting cavalry may begin moving as soon as enemy units approach to within line of sight or 15cm, whichever is less. Both sides then pro-rate their movement until the reacting cavalry and enemy formations have either completed their movement, contacted or approached within general or all-out assault range. Reacting cavalry may not change formation.

Reacting cavalry may leave its divisional command radius and may react while out of command range during the remainder of that turn. If during the following turn that cavalry is still out of command range, it will fall under the same rules as other units which have left command range.

Artillery - There are two types of movement for artillery; Limbered and Prolong. Limbered artillery is attached to a wheeled carriage drawn by horses. Prolong is unlimbered cannon being drawn by men or horses while in a "fire ready" condition.

In order to accomplish both movement and firing, each artillery battery may execute several specific functions during the course of a turn. The available functions are: Move, Unlimber, Fire, Prolong and Limber. Foot artillery may conduct two functions each turn, and horse artillery may conduct three functions. For example; a foot battery may move and unlimber during its movement phase but it may not fire on its following fire phase. If it were to unlimber in place (without moving), it could then fire on its upcoming fire phase. Batteries may not use the same function more than once each turn (i.e. - may not prolong twice during the same movement phase, etc.). Artillery which prolongs loses simultaneous fire privilege against enemy artillery and must suffer enemy artillery effects before they fire.

« 3.6 Terrain Effects
Battlefield terrain will inevitably affect a units ability to move freely around the field of battle. The Battlefield section includes a list of terrain features and their effects on movement. Units may form their front line to local terrain such as hillside, edges of woods, blocks of buildings, streams, etc. By contrast, units in the open must maintain their linear deployments within the limits of the formations section. When paying movement penalties for moving through rough terrain, a unit continues to pay that penalty so long as any portion of it remains within the terrain in question. See example figure at right.

« 4.1 Skirmishers
Skirmish markers represent dispersed light infantrymen and sharpshooters who are deployed to a unit's front and flanks in order to screen against enemy skirmishers and spread disorder in enemy combat formations. Skirmish markers will interfere with friendly artillery line-of-sight if they physically get between the artillery battery and its prospective target, or if the friendly marker opposes an enemy skirmish marker located inside the friendly battery's arc-of-fire. Skirmish marker line-of-sight is blocked by all combat bases both friendly and enemy. Skirmish markers within woods or buildings may project their 8cm engagement range through the terrain if they are not blocked by friendly combat bases or terrain effect restrictions. All skirmish bases within range of enemy troops will fall into one of two categories: opposed or unopposed.

Blocking - A defending skirmish marker may attempt to block the closest enemy skirmish marker that is within 8cm of it. Blocked skirmish markers are considered to be effectively blocked or "screened" and may not fire on enemy combat bases that turn.

M Hits - Attacking skirmish markers not blocked by defending enemy skirmishers may conduct harassing fire against enemy combat bases within 8cm. The skirmish markers must have full line-of-sight to their target and may attack once per turn by rolling a ten-sided die (1D10) and referring to the Skirmishing section of the combat chart for range limits and results. Each M Hit scored on the targeted unit will lower morale by one. A normal unit becomes unformed, an unformed unit becomes rattled, etc. Skirmish bases cannot score M hits on other skirmish markers but may, if unblocked and in range, fire at the parent unit(s) from which the enemy skirmishers originate. All skirmish fire results take effect at the end of the artillery phase (e.g. - skirmish and artillery fire are considered simultaneous).

« 4.2 Artillery Fire
During each Artillery Fire step, artillery batteries for both sides may either fire upon enemy units or announce that they are saving their fire (which may give a firing bonus on later turns). A firing battery has an effective arc-of-fire totalling 60 degrees measured from the outer front edges of its base. In order to conduct artillery fire, repeat the following sequence for each battery:

Step 1: Cross index the range column on the fire chart that matches the target range, with the battery type. This is your basic effect.
Step 2: Apply the Range Column modifiers by moving the basic effect to the right or left, depending on modifier type.
Step 3: Roll 1D10 and add or subtract the applicable die modifiers.
Step 4: If the modified die roll is a 10 or greater, move the basic effect another two boxes to the left. If the modified roll is a 9, move the basic effect one box to the left. If the modified roll is a 2, move the basic effect one box to the right, and if the modified roll is a 1 or less, move the basic effect two boxes to the right. Note that in many case you will already know if there are no column modifiers and go straight to the die roll. If the die result is a very "middle" number like 5 or 6, you can quickly deduce that the final basic effect is your original cross index result.

An artillery battery may only fire once each player turn (twice each game turn), although fire is not mandatory. Limbered batteries may not fire. Artillery may not fire through or over friendly units, including skirmishers. All standard artillery fire conducted during the Artillery Phase is considered simultaneous. Batteries which suffer damage within the same phase will not have their damage effects applied until its end, prolonged artillery is excepted; batteries which prolonged during the preceding movement will lose simultaneous fire privilege against enemy artillery (see artillery movement).

Mass Battery - Artillery bases may be merged into mass batteries. Mass batteries are formed in four-base increments and must be in base-to-base contact with a dedicated leader figure (mutliple mass-battery blocks may be controlled by the one leader, but all member bases must remain in base-to-base contact). If formed as part of the organization of an army at the start of game play, the mass battery qualifies as a dedicated task force formation from the start of play and is assigned to a specific corps or army column, behaving in the same manner as any corps level artillery asset.

Each mass battery block of four bases uses the Massed 4 line on the Artillery table for calcuating its fire effect. This follows the same sequence as normal single-base artillery fire, except the range column drift die roll only affects the range columns on a result of 1 and 10. Mass battery blocks must be for

Saving Fire - At the start of the Artillery Fire segment, any ordered, stationary artillery battery may be announced as saving fire. The battery cannot have moved during the current player turn, may not fire during the current artillery phase and must remain completely stationary. Place a saved fire marker in front of the battery to represent its prepared status. The next time that the battery fires, add one to the fire die roll and remove the saved fire status. If a battery with saved fire moves in any way, the saved fire status is lost (this includes changing facing or prolonging). Each artillery battery may only accumulate a maximum of one saved fire marker at any one time. Saved fire markers may not be stockpiled or traded among batteries. Artillery which is out of command radius may not save fire. A battery with saved fire status receives a bonus if involved in an assault. Involvement in an assault causes all participating batteries to lose saved fire status. (See Tactical Bonuses in the Assault section). Demoralized batteries may not save fire and will lose saved fire status if they become demoralized.

«4.3 Artillery Range Column Modifiers:
The artillery range column modifiers move your base fire effect to the left (more effective) or right (less effective). Range column modifiers are all cumulative.
  • Deep Target - Move one range column to the left if: A) The battery's center of fire passes into or through three or more target bases as measured from the leading edge of the target. The target bases do not need to belong to the same unit, but must all be in open terrain, or B) More than half of the battery frontage is within the 60 degree enfilade arc of an enemy target (enfilade fire), or C) The targeted infantry unit is declared to be in square formation. The deep target modifier is not cumulative (cannot stack passing through three bases with firing from enfilade) and it is not applicable against targets in woods, buildings or on the far side of obstacles such as redoubts, swamps or rivers.
  • Saved Fire - Move one range column to the left if the firing battery successfully maintained saved fire status to the beginning of the current artillery fire segment. Saved fire cannot be used by artillery firing on the Mass Battery bombardment line.
  • Elite Firing - Move one range column to the left if the firing battery is elite troop grade (mass battery must be three-quarters or more elite).
  • At moving cavalry - Move one range column to the right if over half of the artillery target is made up of moving cavalry bases. To qualify as moving, the targeted cavalry formation must have moved at least 15cm during their last move opportunity. If on their last move opportunity (including both regular move or breakthrough/overrun options) they did not move at least 15cm, they are considered stationary for purposes of artillery fire targeting.
  • At Solid or Heavy Cover - If half or more of a target unit is in solid or heavy cover, the firing battery 1 or 2 range columns to the right. (see defense classes under Assault). See terrain section for details about spotting depths and cover.
    • If an artillery battery's center of fire is closest to the uncovered base(s) of an otherwise covered unit, the battery may fire without cover modifiers at the uncovered portions. In such cases where the cover modifiers are not applied against the battery, enemy bases still in cover may not receive base hits as a result of that fire.
  • Green Firing - Move one range column to the right if the firing battery is green troop grade (mass battery must be three-quarters or more green).
  • Damaged Battery - Move one range column to the right if the firing battery has suffered a base hit (damage).
  • At Skirmishers - Move two range columns to the right if the artillery targets are skirmish markers or fully deployed light infantry units (units with one or more skirmishers per combat base deployed).

Enfilade Fire - Per the Deep Target rule's Option B, the artillery battery in the example at left is more than half within the arc-of- fire being used as an enfilade arc (the same angle applies to both enfilade exposure and artillery arc-of-fire). Units A and B are facing forward and presenting their flanks to the artillery battery, thereby allowing the artillery to double its fire points due to the enfilade effect. Note the alignment (white arrow) of the arc to that edge of the unit nearest the artillery battery. If the artillery battery were to the rear of the units, the arc would be slid forward so as to be flush with the rear edges. This is necessary due to the disparity between artillery base frontage and infantry base depth. (drawing not to scale)

Deep Target - Per the deep target rule Option A, the battery's center of fire must pass through three or more combat bases from the front of the target. In the example at right (drawing not to scale), an infantry attack column is approaching a medium artillery battery. The front base of the column is just within the 10cm range bracket and the unit is three or more bases deep. This would qualify as a deep target.

« 4.4 Artillery Die Roll Modifiers:
Die roll modifiers are cumulative and may cancel each other out. The final modified die roll only affects the final artillery result if it is a 1, 2, 9 or 10.

  • Joint Battery Fire - Add one point to a single die roll with more than one battery firing on the same target this phase. For example, if two batteries are firing on the same target, roll one die (1D10) and resolved each battery's result based on that one roll, with a +1 on the die roll.
  • Each morale hit - Artillery batteries which begin the artillery fire step with morale hits subtract 1 point from the die roll for each hit (IE - a demoralized battery suffers a -4 die roll modifier).
  • At packed skirmishers - Subtract 2 points from die roll if the artillery targets are skirmish markers that are spaced less than the minimum 80mm.
  • Passing fire - Subtract 2 points from die roll if the battery is conducting opportunity passing fire during enemy movement. Enemy infantry and cavalry must be within firing battery's arc-of-fire for 8cm and 15cm of their movement respectively. Batteries with saved fire status may not use passing fire.

« 4.5 Targets
Main Targets - Each artillery battery must fire at the unit which is; 1) the closest infantry/cavalry or artillery threat, i.e. - the closest combat base(s) occupying the closest artillery range bracket to the battery (infantry and cavalry targets take priority over artillery targets) and; 2) closest to the battery's Center of Fire.

Different artillery bases may only converge their fire onto one unit if these rules are not violated as a result or if a massed battery is firing (measure from the centerline of each four-base mass battery block to establish main target).

Secondary Targets - Secondary targets are units which suffer collateral damage due to their close proximity to main targets. There are two types of secondary targets: tandem and adjacent. Tandem secondary targets may suffer damage both in place of, and in addition to the main target. Adjacent secondary targets only suffer damage in place of the main target. If both types of secondary targets are near a main target, an adjacent target will only suffer hits if both main and tandem targets are eliminated.

Tandem Target: A tandem secondary target is any unit which is within the attacking battery's firing zone and within 5cm of the main target's front. Tandem secondary targets must also be in open terrain and may not be fully deployed light regiments in skirmish order. Secondary tandem targets always suffer half the number of morale hits as the main target in addition to the main target's morale hits. They also share half of the total base hits rolled on the artillery fire chart, always rounding down. If all bases in the main target are killed, the unit in the tandem target position closest to attacking battery center-line will suffer the balance of the required base hits (if any).

Adjacent Target: An adjacent secondary target is any unit within the firing battery's firing zone which is next to, and within the same range bracket as, the main target. If all the bases in the main target unit are destroyed as a result of one die roll and there are no tandem targets, the adjacent secondary target closest to attacking battery center-line will suffer the balance of the required base hits and morale hits not absorbed by the original main target.

Compound Targets - If different unit types are targeted as a result of either the Deep target or Secondary target rules, use the modifiers most favorable to the battery. Enemy artillery batteries which are positioned within 2cm of each other may be treated as single compound targets for purposes of artillery fire.

Firing zone - A battery's firing zone is a cone-shaped area beginning at an artillery battery's front through which battery fire is directed at targets. The firing zone is tapered outward 10° and may be swung throughout a battery's 60° degree arc-of-fire. It must be free of friendly combat bases (or any parts thereof) and markers in order for the battery to be able to fire. The firing zone should not be confused with the arc-of-fire, which is the stationary zone representing a battery's available firing arc.

Arc of Fire - A battery's arc of fire is a cone-shaped area beginning at an artillery battery's front through which the battery's firing zone may be swung in order to establish whether a potential target can be fired upon. The arc-of-fire itself is tapered outward 60° and is locked in a stationary position onto the battery front – it may not be moved or swung into different positions in order to bring potential targets into the arc. Half or more of one of a formations bases must lie within a battery's arc-of-fire in order to quality as a valid target. The outer edges of the arc-of-fire are marked "60° Maximum Arc" as emphasis of the limits on the battery's effective field of fire.

Line of Sight - A battery must have direct line-of-sight to its target, it may not conduct indirect fire over obstacles, friendly units or enemy units. See the terrain effects table for limits on spotting units located within blocking features such as towns or forests.

Passing Fire - Artillery may Pass Fire at any enemy unit moving across its front (more than 45 degrees from perpendicular). Batteries saving fire may not use passing fire. Those batteries which conduct passing fire may not fire during the following artillery phase, and they do not receive saved fire as a result of that missed phase.

Skirmisher Targets - Regiments fully deployed into skirmish order (one skirmish marker deployed for each base present) will experience morale, base and panic hits in the same manner as other units. If a skirmish marker itself is targeted and hits scored, the hits are passed directly to the parent formation who will sustain the skirmish marker screen to the best of its ability.

Main Targets - At right is an example of the main target rule. Batteries 1 and 2 must fire on the left infantry unit A. Batteries 3 and 4 must fire at the right infantry unit B. If the frontages of two units are within a battery's frontage zone (as with battery 2), the battery must fire at the unit closest to the battery's center line, in this case target unit A. Battery 4 is allowed to fire obliquely into unit B because there are no other targets within that range bracket which are either closer, or more directly to the battery's front

Secondary Targets - At left are examples of both the tandem and adjacent secondary target rules. The front edges of all example target units are within the same range bracket, and unit A is the main target, with the artillery center of fire passing through it. Unit B is a potential adjacent secondary target, and unit C, whose front is – for this example – within 5cm of the front of Unit A, is a potential tandem secondary target. If unit A suffers either two or three morale hits, then unit C will suffer one morale hit. If unit A suffers four morale hits, then unit C will suffer two morale hits. If unit A suffers three base hits, then it will be destroyed, and the unassigned base hit will "carry over" to unit C, causing it to lose one base. If units A and C were composed of only one base each and the same loses were suffered, their two bases would be removed, along with one base from unit B, which is positioned next to unit A and within the frontage zone of the firing battery.

Tandem Secondary Targets - At right is an example of a tandem secondary target. Unit A is the main target, and unit B, whose front is within 5cm of the front of unit A, is the tandem secondary target. If unit A suffers two or three morale hits, unit B will suffer also suffer a morale hit, which occurs in addition to that called for on the assault result. If unit A suffers two base hits, then one is removed from unit A, but the second hit is removed from unit B. If unit A suffers three base hits, then two bases are removed from unit A, and one base from unit B.

Tandem Secondary Targets 2 - At left is an example of a tandem target in which the front formation is a very weak unit which has been thrown forward in an attempt to protect the larger rear unit. If unit A suffers any more than one base hit, the balance of base hits suffered will be taken out of unit B. Morale hits carry over into unit B in the same manner as mentioned in the previous examples.

« 4.6 Artillery Fire Results
Targeted units may directly suffer Morale (M) hit and/or base (B) hits as a result of artillery fire, assign hits according to the Target rules. Demoralized infantry or cavalry units which receive M or B hits as a result of artillery fire will receive one Panic (P) hit for each hit it suffered. This includes units already demoralized at the start of the artillery phase and units which become demoralized during the phase. Demoralized artillery units which receive M hits as a result of artillery fire will receive one base (B) hit instead (one B hit for artillery is a damage hit). Any panic hits inflicted are still considered for purposes of division panic even if B hits completely destroy the unit in question.

Example: A rattled unit which suffers two M and one B hit will become demoralized with one P hit added. If the same unit started the artillery phase unformed, it would suffer only the M and B hits because it did not become demoralized during the phase. If the unit started the phase shaken, it would suffer two P hits in the process of becoming demoralized.
«4.7 Hors de Combat and Panic
Conduct the following steps after all skirmish and artillery fire for the turn has been resolved. If no leaders were within mass battery firing path or 6cm of units that suffered morale or base hits, ignore this step and move on to the Assault Phase.

Hors de Combat - Check for leader casualties (hors de combat); roll 2D10 for each leader who: A) Was within 6cm of any unit that suffered morale (M) or base (B) hits during the phase in question, B) Was attached to a unit involved in an assault during the phase in question or C) Was in the firing path of a mass battery that fired. If a die roll is "doubles" (two of the same number) reference the Hors de Combat table on the combat chart to see whether the result is a casualty. Leaders rendered hors de combat are immediately removed from the game.

All die roll modifiers affect the individual doubles numbers; for example if a player rolls a 2-2 during an emergency rally, the 2-2 becomes a 7-7 because of the emergency rally +5. If a player does not roll doubles, the modifiers do not come into use because non-double rolls cannot result in leader casualties. Checking for leader casualties is the only time in Republique when 2D10 are rolled to gain a result.

Leader Death Die Roll Modifiers:
  • Emergency rally - Add 5 to the hors de combat die roll if the leader is attempting an emergency rally. This modifier is used only for leaders who have been declared as attempting an emergency rally, and is only applied to the pre-rally casualty test. Applicable only during the assault phase.
  • Attached to an assault - Add one to the hors de combat die roll if that leader was attached to a unit involved in an assault during the current turn. Applicable only during the assault phase and also applies to officers captured during the current turn (the enemy may have captured a body).
  • Each base hit (B) within 8cm - Add one to the hors de combat die roll for each friendly unit within 8cm which suffered base hits, add one point per base killed. Applicable during both the Artillery and Assault phases.
  • In cover - Subtract two from the hors de combat die roll if half or more of the units within the 8cm of the leader are within any type of cover. Applicable during both the Artillery and Assault phases.
The final insult: If a dead leader's natural (unmodified) die roll was a 0-0, all divisions under his command suffer one panic hit.

Panic Hits - Execute all involuntary movements as a result of panic hits which occurred due to leader casualty or morale hits on already demoralized units (cross index the Result column in the corresponding panic level). As with other panic hits suffered outside of the assault phase, any base hits suffered in the panic results count as deserters and are immediately removed. Do not check for divisional or inter-division panic at this time.

« 5.1 Assault Procedure
This phase represents the musket volleys, melees, charges and countercharges which occur in the confusion of close combat. When moving into assault contact with an enemy formation – usually as the attacker – the commanding player must decide whether the attack will be a General Assault or an All Out Assault. In both cases the assaulting units must be facing toward the enemy formations and they block assault activity for units behind them (see optional rules for more complex deep attack alternatives). Defending units also block assault activity for the formations behind them. Each unit involved in an assault must apply its entire strength to that assault. Skirmish markers do not interfere with assault proximity and do not apply their bases to the assault.

Assault Contact - Diagram showing the All Out Assault and General Assault zones, which extend 40mm and 80mm respectively from the face and forward flanks of the formation. The outward angle of the zones are 5º per side, which is the same as the artillery firing zone.

General Assault: Attacking formations approach to within 80mm of the defending enemy formation, but greater than 40mm range. They may initiate the assault from this distance per the steps outlined below.
All Out Assault: Attacking formations approach to within 40mm of the defending enemy formation. They may initiate the assault from this distance per the steps outlined below, which gains them the following benefits for Win/Win assault results: a) Inflict one extra M hit on losing enemy units and batteries; b) Gain one extra assault bonus move and c) Add a "C" tactical bonus to the next two assault die roll rounds made during this assault phase (All out assault bonuses are not valid beyond the current turn/phase - they will typically only apply to breakthrough assaults and their equivalents).

Each assault is resolved in the Assault section of the Combat Chart as follows:

Step 1: Each player adds all applicable assault modifiers for their formations and applies them to the result of one ten sided die roll (players roll 1D10 each).
Step 2: The attacker then subtracts the defender's modified result from his own to arrive at the die roll difference.
Step 3: Refer to the die roll difference values shown in the corresponding Roll column located in the combat chart's Assault table. High rolling attacker values (defender loses) force results that are above the zero line and apply to the defending units. Low rolling attacker values (attacker losers) force results that are below the zero line and apply to the attacking units. Three results in the middle of the assault table force either a break-off or re-roll of a second round.
Step 4: Immediately apply the resulting panic hits, base hits and artillery effects (damage and capture) to the involved units according to the attacker type (Infantry or Cavalry). All initial assault rounds must be resolved before re-rolls, breakthroughs overruns are carried out. Mark breakthrough locations before moving on to resolve other assaults.
Step 5: Without re-rolling either dice, conduct the same die roll difference comparison using only the natural (unmodified) die roll numbers. If the side which lost the modified die result also loses the natural die roll (called Lose/Lose), they will suffer morale hits based on the difference between the two natural die roll results. Those die differential M hits are applied to the losing unit(s) based on their troop grade as posted alongside the troop grade list in the Assault Modifiers column. All Lose/Lose morale hits due to assault are rounded up; so if the difference is a one or two against an average unit, it would still received one M hit. If the side that wins both modified and natural die rolls (called Win/Win) has any existing morale hits, they will lose one hit (e.g. - their morale improves by one level). Win/Lose result combinations result in no M hits, as do natural die roll ties.

Note: The side which loses the natural die roll will suffer the required M hits even if the modified assault table result is a tie or has a "roll again" result. The newly applied M hit takes effect immediately and factors into any following assault rounds.

Step 6: Leaders which have been attached to units involved in the current assault round must roll for hors de combat. A leader who has led an emergency rally must also roll a hors de combat check if the assault in question occurred as a result of the emergency rally.
Step 7: After the first round of assaults is resolved, conduct all breakthrough movements and other mandatory movements (if any) required by the assault results. Then repeat steps 1 through 6 for any additional assault rounds which are required to be resolved.

Example: Attacker Unit A is a veteran infantry line. Defender Unit B is an average infantry column. Unit A rolls a natural 8 and Unit B rolls a natural 3. After die roll modifiers, the A to B modified difference is 11 to 3, which scores an attacker win by eight points, which inflicts 3P and ½K.
Unit B also lost the natural die roll by five points, and being an average unit it suffers one morale hit for each three point difference in the natural die roll (rounding up) it also suffers 2M hits. If Unit B had lost the natural die roll by four points, it still would have received a 2M hit.

Follow-up Assaults - Some assault results may trigger several rounds of die rolling before final resolution. As long as enemy units continue to face within 40mm of each other (not 80mm) they will continue to trigger new general assaults. Note that all follow-up assaults are always general assaults. Stalled assaults occur when units required by the rules to continue or breakthrough have insufficient movement to do so (see assault results).

Assault Ranges - In the example at left, the attacking infantry Unit A is all-out assaulting defending infantry Unit Y because it is facing within 40mm of that unit. Even though A is past Units Y's flank line, the defending unit is not outflanked because it is in buildings. Also, even though another friendly unit (Z) is facing within 40mm of Unit Y, the defenders still have only two bases involved in the assault (all of Y and none of Z). However Unit Y can never be considered outnumbered by more than 3:2 because it is in buildings, so had Unit A been a four or five base unit, the assault modifiers used by Unit Y would never exceed 3:2 for outnumbering.

Assaulting Units - In the example at right, units A and X are assaulting each other, and units B and Z are assaulting each other. Unit Y however, is in the proximity of two enemy units. Units will always be involved with enemy units which are closest. So unit Y is involved in the B-Z assault. Players could conduct all five units as one grand assault, but only if both sides agreed. Otherwise, assaults should be broken down into the smallest reasonable groups.

«5.2 Special Rules
Mixed Assaults - When some attacking units advance to the All Out Assault range, while other adjoining units remain at General Assault range, this is called a Mixed Assault. If a mixed assault group wins the modified assault round, they only gain the extra morale hit inflicted on the enemy. The other bonuses typical of a full all-out assault are disregarded.

Local Breakthrough - Attacking units which are rendered out of assault contact range with enemy formations due to artillery or skirmish fire related withdrawals may expend the balance of their remaining normal or assault movement allowance to advance and/or establish assault contact with fresh assault targets. Such local breakthroughs may not violate standing divisional orders. Players intending to move qualifying units must declare so at the start of the Assault Phase, and all such movements must be completed before assault resolution begins.

Bridging Formations - When an attacking unit is facing in assault contact with two different enemy formations as part of a broader assault involving numerous regiments, the attacking player may choose to split that unit's participation into two different assaults instead of allowing that one bridging formation to combine the greater group into a large and potentially unwieldy assault calculation. The following factors must be met into order to split a bridging formation for participation in two different assaults:
  1. The attacking unit's base split must correspond as much as possible to the boundary between the two defending assault blocks.
  2. Only the attacker (phasing player) may split units. The defender for the turn may not.
  3. The bridging formation must respond to assault results in a way which will preserve the unit's integrity – it may not split up. For example, if one assault result calls for a bridging unit to advance and the other calls for the unit to fall back, the unit must fall back in order to preserve its integrity.
  4. Panic and morale hits on bridging units are not cumulative. Only the worst single cases per assault round will apply, although the worst cases for each type (panic, morale, etc) may originate from different assaults. For example, if one assault inflicts 2M and 2P on the attacking force and another assault inflicts 3M and 2P on the other attacking force, a bridging formation split between the two assaults will receive 3M and 2P.
  5. The attacking player is not allowed to pre-calculate the various possible odds and modifier combinations for an assault before declaring whether a bridging formation (if present) will or will not be split. The decision must be made based on an brief examination of the final unit dispositions at the end of the maneuver phase and should not take more than thirty seconds.

Artillery - Each limbered or unlimbered artillery battery within assault range of an enemy unit counts as one combat base in the same manner as an infantry or cavalry base. A massed artillery battery (several batteries with bases touching) counts as one unit, with each base also equalling one regular combat base.

Unlimbered artillery attacked by a breakthrough assault may not fire at the assaulting units, however they may receive the following tactical bonuses if any of the attacking bases are within the battery's arc-of-fire: Artillery which did not fire on the current player turn receives a Bonus C of +1 on the assault die roll; Artillery with saved fire receives a Bonus B of +2 on the assault die roll, and if it is a single battery it may re-face up to 45º to bring attacking bases into its arc-of-fire. Massed batteries may not re-face, but member batteries at each end may re-face up to 45º to bring attacking bases into their respective arcs-of-fire.

Cavalry - Cavalry may not use or inflict the In Column, Cavalry or Outnumbered assault modifiers when fighting in or through rough terrain, buildings or against infantry squares. The chart below outlines which modifiers are lost under these conditions:

Modifier Type Assaulting
in/through Rough Terrain
in Buildings
versus Square
With Infantry
versus Square
Cavalry No No No Yes
In Column Yes No No Yes
Outnumbered Yes No No Yes
Unopposed Overlap Yes No No Yes
Modifier Type: Cavalry = If No, the cavalry unit(s) may not use their respective Light, Medium, Heavy or Armored cavalry modifiers. In Line = If No, the cavalry may not use the +1 modifier for being in line. Outnumbered = If No, the unit which is fighting against the cavalry will not suffer any outnumbered modifiers, regardless of actually outnumbered status.

Conditions: Assaulting in/through Rough Terrain = Use this column if half or more of the assaulting cavalry bases are within rough terrain, moved through rough terrain during the course of the current player turn, or if they are assaulting units within rough terrain. Assaulting in Buildings = Use this column if the units being engaged by the cavalry qualify as being within buildings. Solo versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are attacking infantry squares while unaccompanied by friendly infantry formations. With Infantry versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are attacking infantry squares while accompanied in the assault by friendly infantry formations. The supporting infantry formations must be combat units (not skirmish markers) and may be in general or all-out assault contact.

«5.3 Assault Modifiers
The following modifiers are added or subtracted from the assault roll to complete a modified assault roll. For optional assault rules, see the Assault section of the Optional rules page, which addresses more advanced issues such as assault averaging of both troop grades and cavalry types.

Tactical Bonuses
Type Cover Related Non-Cover Related
A - Heavy: Stone buildings
Stone walls
Heavy woods.
Infantry in square against assaulting cavalry without infantry (skirmish markers do not count).
B - Solid: Medium woods
Light stone wall
Heavy wooden buildings.
Top of slope/ravine
Artillery with saved fire (first assault round only)
C - Soft: Groves
Light wood buildings
Artillery which didn't fire this player turn (first assault round only).
  • Leader Rating - A unit with an attached leader receives that leader's rating (LR) added to the assault roll. The unit must be within the leader's chain of command unless the leader is charismatic.
  • Troop Grades - Attacker and/or defender add or subtract the corresponding troop grade modifier if the greatest percentage of bases present are elite, veteran, green or militia grade troops respectively.
  • Cavalry Grades - Attacker and/or defender add to the die roll if any friendly light, medium, heavy or armored cavalry is present in the assault. Only the modifier for the heaviest cavalry unit present is used.
  • Unopposed Overlap - Attacker adds two (+2) to the die roll if infantry unit frontage is at least one base wider than their primary opponent and the opponent's flank on that side is unsupported - in this case unsupported is defined as no enemy units in opposition to any of the overlapping base(s). Opposition is defined as any enemy combat bases facing within 15cm. Attacking cavalry units qualify for the unopposed overlap bonus if their frontage overlaps the primary opponent's formation at all, even if the overlap distance is less than a millimeter. Note that the attacking formation must be entirely wider than the defender; having overlap on one flank and not being at least matching frontage on the other flank does not qualify. Unopposed overlap cannot be used by cavalry assaulting solo against infantry declared to be in square.
  • In Line (inf/cav)- Attacker and/or defender add one (+1) to their die roll if more than half of bases present are from infantry or cavalry units in line to a maximum of +1 point (the bonus is non-cumulative, a player does not gain a +2 modifier if the half or more bases are a mix of infantry and cavalry deployed in line). Single base units and demoralized units cannot claim the line bonus.
  • Morale Hits - Attacker and/or defender subtract the corresponding minus modifier from the die roll if: a) Over half of the bases in assault contact belong to units with morale hits, or b) the greatest percentage of bases present belong to units with morale hits.
  • Outnumbering Ratio - The combatants with the lesser number of bases will subtract from the die roll if the outnumbered ratio is equal to or greater than 3:2, equal to or great than 2:1, etc. Units in buildings may not be outnumbered by enemy infantry by greater than 3:2 regardless of actual ratio. Units assaulted only in the flank or rear may not inflict outnumbered modifiers. See special cavalry rules for limitations on outnumbering ratios.
  • Each Base Hit - Attacker and/or defender subtract one point (-1) from their die roll for each of their own bases lost from participating units so far during the current player turn. This includes bases lost to artillery fire in the preceding phase this turn.
  • Max P hits this phase - Attacker and/or defender subtract one point (-1) from their die roll for each panic hit suffered so far during the current assault phase (this will typically be units fighting second or third assault rounds after having suffered panic hits).
  • Fully deployed skirms - If the greatest percentage of bases present belong to units with fully deployed skirmishers, attacker and/or defender subtracts two points (-2) from their die roll.
  • Outflanked - Defender subtracts three from the die roll if more than 50% of bases present are from outflanked units (if assaulting unit finishes its move to assault with any part of its bases past the defending unit's flank line). Void if target is hit in rear. Note that infantry squares and units in buildings have no flank (i.e. - their flank zone is considered part of the front).
  • Attacked in Rear - Defender subtracts five from the die roll if more than 50% of bases present are from units being assaulted in the rear (assaulting unit finishes its move to contact with any part of its bases past the defending unit's rear line). Note that infantry squares have no rear. Units in buildings do have a rear.
  • Tactical Bonus - Attacker and/or defender add 1, 2 or 3 points to their die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present qualify for one of the tactical bonuses shown here. Non-cover tactical bonuses listed in Class C apply only toward defenders, and only during assaults. Cover effects apply to both attackers and defenders. Covering terrain also modifies artillery fire (see Artillery Fire Modifiers).

Flank & Rear ZonesFlank and Rear Examples - The flank line for unit A is shown along the rear of the front bases, parallel to the unit's front. The rear lines originate at the outer rear base corners, perpendicular to the unit's front. Unit Y is in a flanking position because part of one of its bases is past the flank line for unit A. Unit Z is striking in the rear because part of one of its bases is past the rear line for unit A. Units struck in both the flank and rear will only suffer the worst of the two effects (-4), not both.

«5.4 Assault Results
Hits and Losses - Both attacking and defending units may suffer morale hits, base hits and panic hits as a result of their involvement in a general or all-out assault. All results for each round of assault combat are applied simultaneously, as are the mandatory movements which may be required.

Morale hits - All units which lost the natural die roll in an assault round will suffer the number of morale hits called for by the assault chart results. Affected units are immediately marked with the corresponding hits markers to show their new condition. All requirements to roll again are done so with modifiers adjusted for the new morale condition(s).

Base hits - Base (B) hits inflicted due to assault results are first distributed evenly among units which were within closest contact with the enemy units. Bases lost are removed immediately from play, and before surrender results are applied. If possible, base hits should be removed from the middle of a unit in order to avoid biasing established assault contact (unit may close bases at end of phase).

Panic Hits - Panic hits control the manner in which units respond to their assault loss. To find a unit's panic response, refer to the corresponding panic level in the Panic Index (panic levels are 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) and cross reference the troop grade of the losing units with that panic level's result column. The results shown indicate the type of mandatory retrograde movement which the losing unit must conduct, either Ds (disengage), W (withdrawal), F (fall back), Re (retreat) or Rt (rout). Surviving artillery batteries may limber-up in order to disengage, withdraw, fall back or retreat. Artillery batteries required to rout are abandoned (captured) regardless of other results.
Direction - Units will conduct their panic hit movement in the following order of preference: 1) Directly away from the enemy threat. 2) Directly toward friendly lines. In some cases a unit may end up moving away at an angle that is an average between these two options (Example: If outflanked, a retreating unit may angle away from the threat as it attempts to return to friendly lines). If friendly formations are directly to a unit's rear, it will pass through those formations (if movement distance warrants it) in the process of executing their panic hit movement.

Group Surrender - A unit which is unable to execute its panic hit movement without passing through an enemy formation (e.g. - it is surrounded and/or pinned against an obstacle) will conduct the following actions by troop grade: Elite units will overrun the enemy formation and return to friendly lines at the cost of one base hit (1B). All other troop grades will surrender.

Lose/Lose Passthrough - Units which suffered lose/lose assault results and pass through friendly formations that are within 9cm to their rear may inflict additional M and P hits on those friendly units. These hits can only happen in cases of Infantry/Artillery passing through Infantry, or Cavalry passing through all types. These Passthrough Hits only happen with the two worst results in each category, consult the table below for specific hit types that will be inflicted on formations that are 9cm or less directly in the path of the retreating/routing unit:
Assault Loser Friendly within 9cm
Shaken 1M
Demoralized 2M
Retreated 1P
Routed 2P

Loss Number - The panic result may also include a loss number, which represents the number of bases taken prisoner as a result of the assault. Losers required to surrender prisoner bases will do so only after base hits have been withdrawn. Prisoner bases are taken first from all-out contact units of the lowest troop grade present, followed by higher troop grade bases within the all-out contact range bracket. Only if all bases in the all-out contact zone are lost may remaining unassigned prisoners be taken from general assault contact units. If a unit is completely destroyed during the course of the assault phase, the parent division must still check for panic (does not apply to a unit destroyed during the artillery phase, even if that unit was already in assault contact).

Example: A veteran grade unit suffers two panic hits as a result of an assault. The controlling player will refer to the second line of the Panic 2 index column (the second line corresponds with the Veteran troop grade units). The Result column indicates an F, meaning that the unit will fall back without further loss. If the unit had been composed of green quality troops, it would have received a Rt-1 result, which would result in one rout move, and the loss of one base as prisoners.

Carry Position - Attacking formations allowed to carry a position are permitted to advance into the position originally taken up by the enemy units before their departure. Carrying a position allows a unit a certain amount of latitude to adjust their orientation, but only if they have sufficient movement allowance remaining. This includes any limbered artillery involved in an assault, which may also participate in a move to carry a position including unlimbering in support of other friendly formations. Troops carrying a position may deploy skirmish markers if that does not violate other game or scenario rules, they may also conduct a single retrograde pivot of up to 45º in order to refuse their flank to an imminent threat or to improve alignment with adjoining friendly units.

Breakthrough - Assault results may either allow or order attackers to continue moving to assault contact, which is called a breakthrough. While conducting this continuing movement, they are subject to normal movement rules and may initiate new assaults against units. They may not violate or exceed their current orders while breaking through, nor may they exceed their maximum movement allowance as measured from the start of their movement phase. Units whose assault results state that they must breakthrough will move to the limit of their full assault movement (even if movement orders are violated as a result) unless countermanded by a new assault result. Units which use their assault movement bonus will suffer one morale hit at the end of the turn. Units which may breakthrough have the option of downgrading their breakthrough option to a mandatory carry position result.

Overrun - An overrun allows assaulting cavalry to break past or through a defeated defender (if any remains) and to continue moving to assault contact against potential assault targets to the rear of the defeated defender. The cavalry may continue assaulting units in this manner as long as it has the available movement and continues to achieve assault results allowing further movement and action. Cavalry which remains in all-out contact range (40mm) with an enemy unit due to refusal to conduct a voluntary breakthrough must conduct further assault rounds until the all-out contact is broken. If no other enemy units are within range of a cavalry unit's remaining post-overrun movement allowance, the cavalry may still overrun the defender and expend movement to the maximum allowable as part of a general penetration of enemy lines.

In cases where an enemy unit suffers panic hits that keep it in the path of an overrunning cavalry formation – especially in cases where the cavalry runs out of available movement – a second assault round may result. This can give the effect of a prolonged running down of the panicking defenders.

Break off - Allows engaged cavalry or infantry to back out of all-out assault contact range with the enemy. This results in one additional morale hit on the unit(s) that break-off. Break off details by assault type are as follows:
     Cavalry Assaulting: If the assault result was a "0" the assaulting cavalry unit conducts a Fallback move to break-off. If the assault result was a "-1" the assaulting cavalry unit conducts a Retreat move to breakoff. In both cases the unit(s) suffer a morale hit at the end of the breakoff move (in addition to any morale hit(s) the unit may have suffered as part of the assault result).
     Infantry Assaulting: For all "Roll Again or Break-off" results, the assaulting infantry has first option to break-off. If that option is exercised, all participating attackers conduct a withdrawal move to break-off assault contact. If the assaulting infantry declines the break-off option, the defending units may exercise withdrawal in the same manner. In both cases the unit(s) suffer a morale hit at the end of the breakoff withdrawal move (in addition to any morale hit(s) the unit may have suffered as part of the assault result). If neither side chooses break-off, another assault round is rolled for ("Roll Again").

Capture Artillery - The corresponding number are captured, either half of artillery bases present or all present. If on the same player turn the capturing troops lose breakthrough assaults which result in a loss of the position which contain the captured artillery, the captured artillery is marked off as destroyed instead of captured. Note that regardless of other assault results, artillery which rout due to panic hits are considered abandoned and therefore captured.

Capture Officer - Either half or all of the officers attached to the assaulting side are captured. For the half-captured result, if one or two officers are present, one of them is considered captured. If three or more officers are attached, two are considered captured.
Units unable to withdraw, retreat or rout away from the enemy without coming in contact with other enemy combat bases will surrender. All breakthrough, break-off and overrun moves are carried out after the first assault round is completed. Subsequent assault rounds are conducted in the same manner.

Stalled Assaults - Assaulting units which have insufficient remaining movement to execute carry position, breakthrough or break-off results are stalled. Stalled units shall still conduct further assault rounds against their opposing enemy formations until they are no longer facing within the 40mm assault range of each other.

Artillery effects - If their results are not separated from the main assault results by a comma (typical with infantry attackers) artillery batteries suffer the same results as other assault losers and are subject to the same morale and panic hits. Additional artillery effects such as damage or capture may also be called for by the assault results, either partially or in full.

For artillery results that are separated from the main results by a comma (typical with cavalry attackers) the artillery suffers only the results shown to the right of the comma. Note that portions of the cavalry results column include both types of artillery results (with and without commas).

Mixed Assaults - If both infantry and cavalry attack victoriously together in a single assault, each attacking unit will use the reaction column corresponding to their type: cavalry using the cavalry column reactions and the infantry using the infantry column reactions. Attacking cavalry may ignore the cavalry reaction if the participating infantry rolls again for a new assault round. In such a case, the cavalry – which otherwise might be forced to breakthrough or breakoff – may instead adopt the infantry's reaction and remain to participate in the new assault round.

Defenders which lose to a mixed infantry/cavalry force will suffer the combination of the worst possible effects for the corresponding assault table result line, including morale, panic and base hits, artillery damage and officer losses.

Republique Battle Scene

« 5.5 Emergency Rally
Upon losing any assault, the commander of the losing side may use local unattached officer figures to attempt an emergency rally of units which lost the just-ended assault. Emergency rallies may be attempted on any unit(s) within 6cm of the rallying leader, and are conducted before moving the losing unit(s).

Step 1: Announce the Rallying leader.
Step 2: Roll on the leader death chart using the +4 emergency rally modifier and any other modifiers which apply. Note that the leading attack/defense modifier and the emergency rally modifier should never be used together, since leaders already attached (i.e. - leading) may not conduct emergency rallies.
Step 3: If the leader survives, he may roll to rally the friendly unit(s), applying double his normal value and any other modifiers which apply. If the unit(s) rallies, a new assault round is immediately resolved, with the rallied unit(s) occupying their original positions, and the bonus for the leader applied as if he were attached to the rallied forces (even though he is not).

Leaders may only conduct one emergency rally per assault phase. They may however, simultaneously emergency rally several units who all participated in the same losing assault round. Assaulting cavalry may ignore successful emergency rallies and continue with an overrun or break-off move. In either case, the rallied unit will reform in its original position and facing, behind the assaulting cavalry if necessary. Infantry who successfully emergency rally against cavalry may form square.

Complete Rally - In the event that all the units in a division successfully rally, all panic hits in that division are eliminated.

« 5.6 Death and Disorder
Hors de Combat - Roll 2D10 for each leader who was attached to any unit involved in an assault during the current Assault Phase, including captured officers. Leaders who have already rolled for death due to direct participation in assault rounds or emergency rallies are exempt from this final roll. Definitions for the hors de combat die roll modifiers appear in the Leader Death and Panic section of the Artillery & Skirmish Fire phase.

Charge Disorder - Units which use any of their assault bonus movement (also known as charge movement) during the turn will suffer charge disorder at that turn's end. Units suffering charge disorder suffer one morale hit, but only after all assaults, emergency rallies and counterattacks are resolved.

End of Phase - At the end of the assault phase, both sides gather any remaining bases killed during the phase and close ranks of units which have suffered base hits by moving their bases back into contact. Units may close ranks on the center of the unit, to the left or to the right, so long as one unit base remains as the stationary anchor for the rest of the closure.
« 6.1 Panic Test Procedure
Panic tests are conducted at the end of a turn by any divisions which have suffered any panic level five (Level 5) events during the course of the turn sequence. These panic tests use the same combat chart table as the panic hits which occur during the assault phase. However, divisional panic tests employ this table in a slightly different manner.

In order to conduct a divisional panic test, cross-index the average troop grade of the testing division with the fail column on the Panic 5 section. Once the failure number is established, the player controlling the division then rolls one die and modifies its result using the panic die roll modifiers. If the modified die roll value equals or exceeds the division's fail number, the division is immediately marked as being in a panicked state and all member units will conduct the resulting forced movement listed immediately to the left of the fail column (fall back, retreat or rout). No morale hits are added to units due to a failed divisional panic test, however if a division routs, all member units will suffer one morale hit at the end of their assault move away from the enemy (already demoralized units suffer no further morale or panic hits because of this, and in most cases any demoralized formations will have already conducted their forced retrograde move for the turn). Divisions which have panicked have their orders automatically reset to Defend.

Units within the division which have already conducted other forced retrograde moves during the current turn's assault phase will only move enough to match the new mandatory move result. For example; if a unit had already conducted a Fallback out of an assault and it's division then panics and routs, the unit will conduct the extra retrograde movement that reflects the difference between the Fallback and Rout result (for infantry in this case, it would involve turning backs to the enemy and moving an extra 9cm away from the enemy and/or toward friendly lines).

If a loss number is shown to the right of the panic result, the division will lose that number of bases to desertion (remember this is a dual-purpose table and that this same loss number is used during the Assault phase to indicate bases captured as prisoners). Deserting bases are taken randomly, first from the lowest troop grade present, followed by progressively higher troop grades within the division. Deserted bases are removed from game play and not returned unless playing multiple-day scenarios. Once all panic test rounds have been resolved, all panic markers are removed from affected divisions, panicked division orders are reset to Defend status and the next player turn is begun.

« 6.2 When to Test
There are two conditions which can trigger divisional panic tests. If more than one condition happens to a division, it will simultaneously roll one die (1D10) for each condition, suffering the worst result which occurs. Because panic test failures can trigger panic tests in adjoining divisions, the panic test phase is conducted in "rounds" during which progressive groups of divisions will roll for panic. All panic tests conducted within a test round are considered to be simultaneous, and resulting mandatory movements are executed only after all necessary die rolls for that round have been conducted.

1) Internal Panic - A division must roll for panic if any of its units suffered panic level five (Level 5) hits during the assault phase. Note that if the unit(s) which experienced the P5 hit were entirely destroyed, deserted or captured, the division still reacts per the internal panic rule for its member units having suffered a P5 event. Units which suffer various panic hits that total to five or higher without experiencing a P5 hit do not have to check for internal panic.
2) Adjoining Panic - A division will roll on the panic level five column if any adjoining division within 8cm becomes panicked during the Panic Test Phase. Divisions are considered adjoining if the closest points of their closest units are within 8cm of each other, or within line of sight, whichever is less.

Each division may only test once for each panic condition during the course of a panic phase. For example; if a division passes an internal panic test, only to have an adjoining division fail a similar test, the subject division must then roll an adjoining panic test. If however, it passes that panic test only to have yet another adjoining division panic during the same round (or any subsequent round of that phase), it will not have to roll a second adjoining panic test.

« 6.3 Panic Modifiers
Panic Die Roll Modifiers: The following modifiers increase or decrease the failure die rolls:
  • Adjoining panicked division is heavy support- Add three points (+3) to the panic die roll if a panicked adjoining division counts as a heavy support formation (elite troop grade and/or heavy cavalry present).
  • Each extra demoralized unit (beyond first)- Add two points (+2) to the panic die roll for each additional demoralized unit present beyond the first one. For example: A unit with one demoralized unit would not take any extra modifier. A unit with three demoralized units would add four points to the panic die roll.
  • Adjoining unshaken division is heavy support - Subtract one point from the panic die roll if an adjoining unshaken division (i.e. - one which has no shaken or demoralized units) is a heavy support formation (elite troop grade and/or heavy cavalry present).
  • Rolling division is unshaken - Subtract one point from the panic die roll if the rolling division is unshaken.
Panic Base Hit Modifiers: The following modifiers add base hits to the existing loss numbers. All base hit modifiers are cumulative (e.g. - Routing out an assault in the rear, out of a town and across a bridge results in four bases taken prisoner for an average unit).
  • Retreat/Rout - Add 1 base (B) hit to the loss number for the following conditions: Unit is retreating or routing out of: Town terrain (blocks, buildings); across bridges or fordable streams or is retreating/routing away from an assault in the rear.
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