GRAND TACTICAL NAPOLEONIC WARFARE IN MINIATURE
- 0.0 Contents:
- 1 Introduction:
- Scales, Equipment,
Units, Formations, Battlefield, Start a Game
- 2 Command:
- Chain of Command, Command Radiuses, Orders, Leaders, Rallying,
- 3 Maneuver:
- Movement, Maneuvering, Forced Move, Movement Modifiers, Special Rules,
- 4 Artillery &
- Skirmishers, Artillery
Fire, Point Modifiers, Die Modifiers,
Targets, Leader Death & Panic,
- 5 Assault:
- Assault Procedure, Special Rules, Modifiers, Results, Emergency Rally, Death & Disorder,
- 6 Panic Test:
- Panic Procedure, When
to Test, Modifiers
Updated June 3,
2020. Beta Test Edition.
was designed to recreate large battles of the French Revolutionary and
Napoleonic Wars, and complete them in a reasonable amount of time (e.g. -
quickly). Most period battles can be played using these rules on a ping-pong
table (roughly five foot by nine foot space), and the basing uses a common
standard. The rules themselves have been used to rethink how a Napoleonic
wargame can be carried-out. The goal is to get a reasonably accurate final
result of the fighting. In order to do this in a reasonable time, we have
streamlined the warfighting perspective to that of a corps or army commander.
As a result, there are no volley fire calculations, all regimental combat is
covered in general assault rounds which are driven to full resolution each
turn. Skirmish fire has been abstracted to reflect its general effects,
while still being depicted on the board as status markers (which look just like
skirmishers). Artillery fire has been researched and calibrated to give the
most accurate possible final battle results. For those who crave even greater
historical detail, numerous optional rules are available, accessible from the
main Republique index page.
The standard ground scale for Republique is defaulted to
15mm miniature play, where 36 scale meters is represented by 1cm on the game
board (28mm equals 100 meters). Infantry and cavalry bases represent 550 men
each. Artillery bases represent 12 guns each. Note that for game play,
Republique artillery bases are still referred to as batteries even
though most tactical-level artillery batteries of this period employed fewer
guns. Each full turn represents approximately 40 minutes of battle time.
All game play is
conducted using ten-sided dice with the number range on the dice representing
the numbers one through ten (1 - 10), this means that the 0 on
the die represents a 10. A metric tape measure and
firing arc are also needed for
measuring and targeting. The most important equipment are the many miniatures
and markers you will want to fight battles. Below are some guidelines which
Republique uses for its gaming system:
Morale Markers - A
common feature of many wargames are death caps, which are used by most
rules to indicate losses on multi-figure bases. In Republique, these same caps
can be used to indicate morale hits suffered by a formation. The caps should be
colored white, yellow, red and black in order to indicate unformed, rattled,
shaken and demoralized morale conditions respectively. Death caps
are available at most hobby stores, although they can also be bought at
industrial supply houses for a fraction of the cost ("death caps" are actually
urethane protective caps used for various manufacturing processes). Slightly
better looking markers for the battlefield are small 3/8" wood blocks sold at
hobby stores. They can be painted the correct colors and have a clean look for
placement next to units.
Marker Bases - Units wishing to
execute special formations will need marker bases to indicate those actions.
The two marker bases most needed for game play are skirmish markers and
Skirmish Markers - Skirmish markers
are used to depict skirmishers who have deployed out of their parent unit.
Unlike the square marker defined below, skirmish markers represent an extension
of their parent unit's combat capacity, and the skirmish markers themselves may
conduct attacks that affect the morale of enemy units. Each skirmish marker
base may only sustain one base hit before being destroyed and removed
from play. The best way to create a skirmish base is by mounting a single light
infantry figure on a small, round base (see base sizes below).
In Square Markers - Square markers
indicate that all of a formation's sub-units (usually battalions) are formed
into squares, which are potent anti-cavalry defenses. Unlike skirmish markers,
square markers do not represent an extension of a unit's combat capacity, and
therefore they cannot be attacked or destroyed. However the unit declared to be
in square will be subject to all of the advantages and disadvantages associated
with this special formation (see Formations below). The best
way to create an in square marker is to place a single line infantry
figure on a small, square base - we use standard bearers to show a unit is
definitely in square.
Other Markers - A few other markers
which are not mandatory but which add flavor to the game include breakthrough
markers, which can be used to show where assault breakthroughs have occurred,
and saved-fire markers, which can be used to show artillery batteries which
have rested and prepared their guns by remaining inactive for one turn. An
excellent breakthrough marker is an officer figure, especially one which is
waving his sword, exhorting his men forward. A saved fire marker can easily be
made by gluing together a small stack of four BBs (small metal balls) and then
painting them black. In order to prevent game-board confusion, optional markers
should be used only for temporary situations or for stationary units.
|Gaming Scales »
(18mm = 100 meters)
(28mm = 100 meters)
(36mm = 100 meters)
(54mm = 100 meters)
| Scale Ratios »
|Measuring Systems »
||20 x 12
||¾ x ½
||30 x 20
||40 x 25
||1½ x 1
||60 x 40
||2¼ x 1½
||25 x 20
||1 x ¾
||40 x 30
||50 x 40
||2 x 1½
||80 x 60
||3 x 2¼
||20 x 25
||¾ x 1
||25 x 40
||1 x 1½
|| 30 x 50
||1½ x 2
||50 x 80
||2 x 3
|Artillery Limber markers:
||20 x 20
||25 x 25
||1 x 1
|| 30 x 30
||50 x 50
||2 x 2
||12 x 20
||½ x ¾
||25 x 30
|| ¾ x 11/8
|| 25 x 40
||1 x 1½
||40 x 60
||1½ x 2¼
|Marker bases &
||20 x 20
||20 x 20
|| ¾ x
||25 x 25
||1 x 1
||25 x 25
||1 x 1
Scales refers to the name and associated ground scale for each scale
category. Scale Ratios are the relational values which players may refer
to for conversions. These ratios are necessary because the main rules text is
written for the 15mm scale. Players wishing to interpret distance-related
rulings for the other scales will need to multiply the distances quoted in the
rules by the scale ratios shown above. The base sizes associated with each
scale group are not absolute, and players may combine scales and bases for
varying effects. An extreme example would be the use of numerous 6mm figures on
the base family listed in the 25mm column.
Combat Bases - Combat bases make up the primary
combat units used for game play, including infantry, cavalry and artillery
formations. Most wargame figures will be glued directly to the bases, which
should be cut from thin sheets of wood or metal. Refer to the Base Size
Chart above for a full listing of all base sizes and game scales directly
supported by Republique. All of these base sizes are standard, and are
available in pre-cut form. The figure scales most commonly used for Napoleonic
wargaming are 6mm (1/300), 10mm, 15mm and 20mm, although other scales such as
25mm are also widely used.
For game play purposes, unit composition is
controlled by the number of combat bases, not the number of figures. This
allows players to mount any number of miniatures they wish on their combat
bases. Each base should also be marked on the upper rear or bottom with the
name or number of the unit they represent. Infantry regiments will usually have
a name or number. Brigades made up of weak regiments (a common situation for
campaign armies) can use the name of the brigade commander or the number of the
brigade. Cavalry brigades may also use the name of the brigade commander or
senior regiment in the brigade. Artillery batteries should be marked with their
size (heavy, medium or light). A more clinical identification alternative is to
number all of your units using your own system (IE - unit 101 through 183) and
then keep a list of what each number represents for that battle.
infantry combat base is removed from play after one base hit (B). Each cavalry
or artillery base (also called a battery) may sustain two base hits before
being removed from play. A cavalry or artillery base with one base hit is
considered damaged and should be marked accordingly. Two damaged combat bases
may not merge to create a single undamaged base. Only one damaged base at a
time may exist in a formation, if another base hit is sustained the current
damaged base is removed, leaving the parent formation with no damaged
Each unit in Republique
is made up of combat bases which as a group make up its
total strength and depict that formation's deployment area. The
different branches of service have varying methods of deployment as explained
|Regiments or Brigades?
Real life infantry regiments could become severely
undermanned while on campaign, and to reflect this, brigades may occasionally
be used to depict groups of weak regiments. During game play these brigades
behave exactly like regiments, and are even referred to as regiments for
purposes of explaining the rules. When deciding which historical formations to
use (regiments or brigades), try to maintain average unit sizes of four or five
bases, which are the optimal sizes for game play.
Note that a base hit
does not necessarily mean that all 550 men are dead. General rule of thumb is
each lost base roughly equals about 150 dead, 350 wounded and 50
Infantry - The standard infantry formation is the
regiment. The only ongoing exception to this is the British army brigade, which
is employed in the same manner as a regiment. Note that many historical orders
of battle include very weak field strength units. These reduced formations may
result in whole infantry brigades and even divisions operating as regiments on
the gaming table. Some infantry regiments may deploy their own screens of light
infantry using skirmish markers. Light infantry regiments may normally
deploy one skirmish marker per active combat base. Line infantry regiments may
if skirmish capable deploy one skirmish marker per regiment.
Light regiments which lose combat bases will have the number of skirmish
markers which they may deploy also reduced by one for each combat base lost.
For additional information see troop lists and
Cavalry - The standard cavalry formation is the
brigade. Before game play begins, players have the option of breaking up
cavalry brigades and assigning their individual bases to other divisional level
formations. The re-assigned base(s) must remain within the command radius of
the new divisional commander but may otherwise move freely to support units
within that division. These dispersed bases may be reformed back into their
parent brigades by successfully rolling a change of orders and then
moving the disparate units back to within the command radius of their original
divisional commander or equivalent. These newly reconstituted cavalry brigades
may join an assault on the same turn they reform, but only if no
movement rules are violated as a result.
Artillery - Heavy artillery batteries represent 12
pound cannon and their supporting howitzers. Medium artillery batteries
represent 6 though 9 pound cannon and their supporting howitzers. Light
batteries represent 3 and 4 pound cannon and their supporting howitzers.
Artillery bases in Republique represent fairly packed batteries (minimum space
between cannon), which is why there are no modifiers downgrading
counter-battery fire. It takes two base hits to destroy an artillery combat
base. After the first hit, the base is marked as damaged and will be destroyed
if it receives a second base hit.
The battalions and regiments which make up Republique's combat units
are assumed to be in formations best suited to, or under orders of, the local
commanders. For example: If a cavalry brigade attacks an infantry regiment in
"line" formation, and is bloodily repulsed, it is important to keep in mind
that the line may have been a line of battalion squares!
Each group of bases
representing a unit's deployment area are placed into specific
Formations. Available formations include line, column, square and
skirmish. Also available are echelon, a variation of a line, and
mixed, a variation of column. The words "line" and "column" are only
used to distinguish between shallow and deep unit dispositions, not to infer
the formations of individual battalions or squadrons making up the regiments.
Regardless of the regimental "formation," the sub-units of which they are
composed are assumed to be in formations controlled by the local formation's
Formation Examples - At left are shown the major
types of available formations, with the top of the page being the direction in
which they are facing (note the Direction of Movement arrow). At upper
left is shown the mixed formation, which is always two bases deep. At
upper center is a unit in line, its stands are side by side and all
facing in the same direction. At upper right is an echelon formation,
which is a type of line used to angle a unit's flank line away from potential
threats. Echelon may also be formed to the right instead of left (as shown), or
off the center, which forms a wedge formation. At lower left is a two base unit
with two skirmish markers deployed to its front. At lower center is an
attack column, its stands are in single file facing the same direction.
At lower right is a road column, it is formed into a T-shape, with all but one
base placed into alternate facings. The one remaining base is placed at the
"head" of the march column in the direction of movement. For movement and
assault purposes, a road column's facing is controlled by the facing of the
front guide base. For artillery targeting purposes however, the long axis of
the column is used to align the enfilade arc (i.e. - when checking for status
as a enfilade target, position the artillery arc off of the front and back ends
of the road column, not off of the sides of the guide base).
Skirmish Markers - At lower left in the formation diagram is an example
of a small two stand unit deploying two skirmish markers. These markers are
used to indicate skirmish troops which have been thrown forward by their parent
units. See the Maneuver section for more
about allowed distance between skirmish markers and their parent formations.
Not all units are able to deploy skirmishers, and players should consult the
troop lists for more information on each nation's particular skirmishing
abilities or lack thereof.
Infantry Square - Not shown are
infantry squares, which are indicated using square markers in
conjunction with existing formations. Only infantry units in mixed, line or
echelon formations may use square markers. The markers themselves need only be
placed in close proximity to a formation to indicate its "square" status. Units
marked as being in square may move normally, but may not use the assault
movement bonus, and must change to alternate formations (usually line or
column) when passing through towns, woods, bridges and other obstacles. Units
in square always count as enfilade artillery targets.
Higher Formations - The regiments and brigades
discussed so far will usually be grouped into divisions for game play. These
divisions will in turn be grouped into larger corps and armies or simply
overseen by an overall commander. For a continuation of these next levels of
battlefield organization see the Command section of the rules and the various troops lists posted
on the main Republique page.
1.5 The Battlefield
systems most commonly used for wargaming employ plateau-shaped hill segments in
1" and/or ½" thicknesses. For game play, consider the 1" thick hills to
be one level high/rough terrain and ½" hills to be one-half level
high/normal terrain. Varying widths of masking tape may be used to show main
and secondary roads. Colored felt, cardboard or cloth may be used to cover or
outline the locations of woods, towns and fields. Scale trees and buildings may
then be placed on these outlines, although these attractive additions are
commonly pushed out of the way as large formations pass through.
section of buildings actually represents a city block, which is why they are
outlined. Troops inside these areas are not "in a building" but actually in a
built up area which may include anything from fence-lines, plots of land and
taverns to churches, cemeteries and government buildings. Consult the Terrain
Chart for the game-specific characteristics of various terrain
Unit Placement - When using plateau shaped hill segments,
units within five centimeters (5 cm) of a hill's upper edge may spot and be
spotted by those on lower levels, otherwise they are too far away from the edge
of the plateau to establish line of sight. Treating gaming hills as the
plateaus they usually resemble is the best way around most "ridge" arguments.
This also creates dead ground along the bases of most hills, another realistic
effect. Units within 10mm of the edge of a forest or town block are considered
"at the edge." Units more than 10mm from the edge are considered inside the
woods or town block.
Example 1: An infantry unit
positioned 5mm from the edge of a town block is considered at the edge of the
block. An enemy formation assaulting from outside the town is considered in the
open. If the unit in town were positioned 15mm from the edge, an assaulting
enemy formation could be considered to have entered the town and be attacking
the unit in town, with both benefitting from the town's cover.
2: An artillery battery placed within 10mm of a forest edge may fire
upon targets as if it were in the open. If the same artillery battery were
positioned 20mm inside the forest, it would still be able to fire on targets
(note the terrain spotting depth of 25mm for medium woods) but it would suffer
a minus for firing through cover. If the battery were more than 25mm inside the
medium woods, it would not be able to fire out at all due to line-of-sight
restriction imposed by the spotting depth.
|Terrain Types & Effects
|Recommended color & material
|Counts as Rough?
||No Assault Bonus Move
|Light grey felt
||Light wood town block
|Medium grey felt
||Heavy wood/light stone town
|Dark grey felt
||Heavy stone construction town block
||All but skirmish
|Dark green felt
|Medium green felt
|Light green felt
||Light woods/ Orchard
|Light tan corduroy
||Blocks line of sight on same level only.
|Grey heavy corduroy
1.6 Starting a Game
Draw a map
of the battle area - Each player must have a battle map, however crude, on
which to write their command arrows. The maps may be simple or complex, so long
as all players use the same map. Occasionally using inaccurate maps can add a
little realistic spice, although a judge should be present to make the fateful
Fill out divisional locations and orders - Players
record the locations of divisions and (if any) corps reserve formations and
then "issue" orders to the units under their command. The resulting
order/disposition maps should not be shown to the opposing players until the
Set up units - Players set-up their formations based
on the map dispositions.
ONE PLAYER TURN:
- Attacker attempts to rally units (Leaders may move
- Attacker attempt to change orders
- Both side attach leaders (only attacking players
may move leaders)
- Attacker replaces fallen leaders
- Attacker Maneuver (attacker function
- Attacker moves units according to orders
- Artillery/Skirmish Fire
- Both sides conduct simultaneous skirmish fire
- Both sides conduct simultaneous artillery fire
- Both sides check for leader casualties (hors de
- Demoralized panic test (if a demoralized unit
suffered a P hit)
- Resolve all assaults
- Both sides declare emergency rallies &
- Both sides check for leader casualties (hors de
- All attached leaders automatically detached
- Attacker applies charge disorder
- Conduct divisional panic tests (internal
- Conduct inter-divisional panic tests (adjoining
Preliminary bombardment (optional) - If both sides
agree, all artillery may fire repeatedly and continuously until one or both
players decides to start the regular turn sequence. Both sides must
mutually agree to the bombardment. No saved fire steps may be executed during a
bombardment and no other phases such as movement or assaults may be conducted
during this preliminary bombardment.
Turn Sequence - Each full turn sequence is
split into two player turns during which each side alternately acts as
the attacker. In order to establish the initial player turn cycle, each side
rolls one die. The high roller may decide which player becomes the first
attacker, and the game begins with the first player turn. Players then
alternate turns as attackers throughout the rest of the game, with each pair of
player turns representing one full turn. Each full turn sequence
represents approximately 40 minutes of combat time.
Command Phase- At the start of every
player turn each attacking player for that side shall attempt to rally
all units under their command which have morale hits. The attacking players may
move leaders up to 15cm during the rally step in order to place them near units
under their command in need of rallying. Next, the attacking player may attempt
to change orders for their divisions. Next, players for both sides may attach
leaders to units under their command. For the turn's attacker this is achieved
by moving a leader figure up to 15cm into base-to-base contact with a unit
under their command and declaring that leader to be attached. Leaders which
have already moved during this phase in order to aid rallying may not move
again in order to attach. Once attached, the leader will directly "lead" the
unit in assault combat until it is automatically detached at the end of the
assault phase. The current player turn's defender may also attach leaders, but
may not move them to do so - the leader must already be touching bases with the
unit he intends to attach with. While attached to a unit, a leader does not
lend his value to any other units under his command. The last step in the
Command phase is to replace dead leaders with a new leader figure per section
Maneuver Phase- Attacking units may move according to their
current orders. Units may only move within the constraints of their orders, up
to their maximum movement allowance.
Artillery/Skirmish Fire Phase-
Both sides start by conducting simultaneous skirmish fire per section 4.1. Note
that skirmishers must have remained within assigned distances from their parent
units per section 3.5. After all skirmish fire is conducted, resolve all
artillery fire and assign resulting Morale (M) and Base (B) hits as required.
Also mark any Panic (P) hits as required in section 4.6. All skirmish fire and
artillery fire is considered simultaneous. Finish the phase by checking for
leader casualties (hors de combat) and panic tests per section
Assault Phase - Resolve all assaults per section 5.0 until all
formations are outside of all-out assault contact range. Check for leader hors
de combat and apply charge disorder if necessary.
Panic Phase- Check
first for division panic per section 6, then check for inter-divisional panic.
Conduct all involuntary moves before ending the player turn. Proceed to next
2.1 Chain of Command
uses a very simple divisional level command system. Every infantry regiment,
cavalry brigade and artillery battery needs to have a divisional commander in
charge of it, and every divisional commander is controlled by someone who
issues his orders. Even in the rare case of units without any official
divisional commander, there will be a leader who fulfills the role of a
divisional officer and who is considered such for game play purposes.
At the beginning of the French Revolutionary period, the highest permanent
formations were usually regiments. Eventually, nations began grouping regiments
into permanent or provisional divisions and by the later part of the wars,
these divisions were grouped into permanent corps. Below is a short description
of each of these systems and how they are represented in Republique. Related
subjects such as orders and command radiuses are explained later in the
Regimental Pool System: Using this basic system, a
commander-in-chief was allotted a general pool of units which he then doled out
to various officers under his command. These subordinates then operated their
own columns or "wings," either independently or as part of a larger army.
During battles, the commander-in-chief would commonly assign these column
commanders to the army's left flank, center, right flank and advanced guard.
In Republique, the wing or column leaders function as divisional
commanders. They are issued game orders by the commander-in-chief, and
all units assigned to them must remain within their respective command
Divisional Wing System: This is similar to the
previous method, except that column commanders were assigned divisions and
brigades instead of regiments. Each division was likely to be a semi-permanent
organization of infantry, artillery and/or cavalry.
In Republique, the
divisional commanders operate as normal by keeping the various units under
their command within the required command radiuses. Column commanders issue
game orders to various divisions under their command. The
commander-in-chief in turn issues written orders to the various column
Corps System: In this system, autonomous corps are
assigned their own semi-permanent commanders and divisions. Each division is
permanently assigned certain regiments and has organic artillery elements. Each
divisional leader is given orders by the corps commander who may assign
additional cavalry and/or artillery assets from the corps reserve.
Republique, corps commanders issue game orders to the divisional leaders
and may remove units (especially artillery) from the divisions and assign them
to corps reserve formations. They may also assign various reserve units to the
divisions, in which case the newly assigned units are subject to divisional
commander radiuses. Corps level reserve formations with their own leaders
operate in the same manner as divisions, receiving game orders from the
corps commander. Corps (and army) reserve units without their own leaders must
either be assigned to a division or assigned an aid-de-camp, who acts as
their divisional commander. Army level divisions (usually reserve formations)
receive game orders from army commanders in the same manner that member
divisions of a corps receive game orders from their corps
2.2 Command Radiuses
under the command of a divisional leader must remain within that officer's
command radius (CR), which is measured from the center of the front edge
of the commanding leader's base to the center of each member unit's base
frontage. The command radius represents a zone of communication within which a
divisional leader may automatically control units under his command. Units
within their divisional commander's effective radius will always respond to
order changes on the same turn upon which those changes are successfully rolled
for and changed. Units outside their divisional leader's command radius are
considered to have exceeded the ability to communicate with them in a timely
manner and have correspondingly limited courses of action. This command radius
system applies only to divisional leaders and their equivalents, not to
corps/army commanders, who do not have command radiuses. At the end of each
assault phase, divisional leaders may adjust their positions by up to 8cm in
order to keep within their command radius those units which conducted mandatory
movements during the assault phase.
There are three command
categories, each of which have established command radiuses and order change
abilities. These categories are:
Efficient: 30cm command radius.
Change orders on a die roll of 4 or higher. Refer to the Troop Types by Nationality
list for command category information for specific nations.
Command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 6 or higher.
Cumbersome: 20cm command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 7
Useless: 20cm command radius. Change orders on a
die roll of 8 or higher.
the CR - Units which leave their divisional leader's command radius because
of a morale failure or assault result (i.e. - due to a mandatory movement.)
will remain in their final position until they rally (if necessary). If after
rallying they are still out of the CR, they must either remain stationary under
an automatic defend order, continue withdrawing each turn if demoralized, or
move to rejoin their parent formation. While separated from their division,
they receive no benefits for rally orders which their division might be under
and they may not execute divisional orders until they rejoin their division by
re-entering the CR. They may however, receive rally bonuses from other leaders
in their chain of command or other charismatic leaders who are within
Leaving units behind - Units attempting to individually
rally may be left behind by divisional leaders in order to maintain the pace of
a move or attack order. Leaders attached to regiments continuing assaults may
also leave distant units behind. The units left behind suffer the same
restrictions as units which have retreated from a CR.
There are two types of
orders used to transmit commands during game play: game orders and
written orders. Game orders are issued to divisions by their respective
corps or army commanders. Written orders are issued to corps or columns,
effectively limiting direct communication between participating players.
Divisions never receive written orders, and corps/armies (or their equivalents)
never receive game orders. Put another way, written orders are for
player-to-player communication, game orders are for players to control and move
At the beginning of
each game, every division must be issued initial game orders by its
respective corps/army commander. Official game orders are: attack, defend,
reserve, move, retire and rally. Once game play begins, players wishing to
change a division's orders must first pass an order change test, which may only
be attempted during the command phase of the controlling player's turn. To
attempt an order change, consult the Leaders section of the combat
chart. The Change Orders column in that section indicates the die rolls
required for a formation of that nationality to have its orders changed. Order
changes include switching among order types, changing a command path in any way
or changing the configuration of a defensive area. A corps/army commander may
not change orders if they have attached themselves to a unit.
Move - Moving divisions mark their movement route on
the battlefield orders map. This command path is drawn as a
single line terminated by an arrowhead. The arrowhead indicates where the
division will stop and automatically revert to a defend order, with the
attitude of the arrowhead indicating the division's defensive facing. The
command path itself may be as straight or sinuous as the commanding player
wishes, although players should keep in mind that the more complex a unit's
march route, the more subject the unit will become to unexpected events.
Each turn that a division is under move orders, it must have at least half
of its units expend at least half of their available movement following the
command path line until they reach their objective or if division formations
face within 25cm of enemy units. While the division faces within this 25cm
contact range, its units may move at any speed required to fight
properly so long as the division's overall center line remains within 15cm of
the command arrow's route shown on the map. Note that this does not allow the
division to back out of contact range. It must either hold its position in
front of the enemy - within 25cm - or advance and attempt to attack or move
through the enemy in pursuance of its movement order. Units under Move command
which have enemy formations approach their flanks or rear will continue to
follow their original Move order unless the enemy units approach within 15cm of
any member units. If an enemy formation approaches within 15cm (must be facing
the moving division), the moving division will automatically convert to a
Defend command and attempt to hold their current position until a change of
order can be issued or the enemy formation is no longer a thread, at which
point the formation will resume its original move command.
Attack - Attacking divisions are assigned specific
enemy divisions to attack. This command path is drawn on the orders map as a
single line leading to the target location, which is circled. Units under
attack orders must be within 45cm of their target at the time of the order and
must have at least half of their units expend at least half of their available
movement moving toward the target formation. Once within 25cm of the assigned
enemy, all infantry and cavalry units belonging to the attacking division must
attempt to assault the attack target's member units. Artillery assigned to the
division may operate freely within the division's deployment area, so long as
their actions directly support the other units in the division (IE - Artillery
assigned to the division may not be used to support other divisions). Any enemy
formation currently spotted by friendly forces may be assigned as attack
targets. Direct line-of-sight observation by the attacking formation is not
required at the time the order is issued.
Member units of an Attacking
division may find themselves in assault contact by enemy units not part of
their target (especially those present on the attacking division's flanks). In
such cases the member units will obey normal assault rules and may find
themselves separated from the parent Attacking division. In such cases follow
all normal rules for separated units. Members units of an Attacking formation
may not take part in carrying positions, breakthroughs or overruns that come as
a result of assaults they may have found themselves a part of due to such
adjoining troop actions.
Unless its progress is directly obstructed by
movement or assault of other enemy formations, an attacking division will
ignore enemy formations other than those targeted by the Attack order (IE -
they may not initiate assaults against formations outside of the targeted enemy
division). Attacking divisions will attempt to track and follow their assigned
target even if it attempts to move away, adapting their command path each
command phase in order to correct for enemy position. If during the process of
moving toward a targeted enemy formation an attacking division's progress is
directly obstructed by a different (non-targeted) enemy formation within 25cm
range, the attacking division's orders are treated as Move. Whilst within the
25cm range of the intervening enemy formation, the Attacking division is
subject to all normal rules that apply to moving divisions that find themselves
within contact range of an enemy. Once the enemy formation no longer presents
an obstacle to the Attacking division, the division may if capable
resume its pursuit of the original target unless the target is no longer
spotted by friendly forces.
Defend - Divisions under defend orders must attempt
to hold specific terrain or areas. Once placed, defending units may not
voluntarily advance or withdraw beyond the overall defensive position (defined
as their deployment area as marked on the orders map). The center-point of the
division must remain within 15cm of the center-point of the deployment area
shown on the orders map. The defending division may expand or contract its
frontage, so long as it remains within 15cm of its original center-point.
Reserve/Restage - Units may only be given reserve
status at the start of the game. Once play begins, no units may be given a
reserve command. Divisions in reserve must be initially located at least 30cm
away from enemy combat bases and must remain stationary at their original
starting position unless:
a) They are issued new orders during the
Command Phase. Reserve status divisions which are issued new orders will act on
them without having to roll for change of orders.
Enemy units approach within 25cm to their front or 15cm from the flank or rear
(same reaction ranges as the Move command). If approached by enemy units within
the indicated ranges, a division in reserve will immediately revert to
defend status, losing all benefits that are associated with being in
c) They restage. Reserve divisions may restage
during their maneuver phase. They must pass an order change roll in order to
restage and may not approach within 25cm of any enemy combat bases as part of
their restage move. They are still considered to be in reserve status at the
end of the restage move.
Retire - Retiring divisions mark their movement route
on the battlefield orders map. The command path is drawn as a single
line terminated by the division's new defense line. The defense line is where
the division will stop and automatically revert to a defend order, with the
orientation of the line indicating the division's defensive front.
turn that a division is under retire orders, it must have at least a quarter of
its units expend at least half of their available movement following the
command path line away from the enemy until they reach their objective. This
allows up to three-quarters of the division to conduct retrograde movement
facing the enemy as rear guards. Retiring divisions will ignore enemy
formations unless they directly interfere with passage through to their new
defense line. A division that has successfully changed its order status to
Retire must roll for panic failure on the Panic & Rallying
Rally - All member units of a division under a
Rally order may use their leader's value (instead of only those within
8cm) and they benefit from a general rally die roll modifier on the rally
table. Rally orders automatically detach the divisional leader if at the time
of the order he is attached to a unit. All units under a rally order must
either be more than 25cm away from enemy combat bases, or must move beyond the
25cm "danger zone" from enemy combat bases on their first move opportunity
(this may result in some units in the division already being at a safe distance
and others obliged to move out of the danger zone at first opportunity).
Divisional formations must be within their leader's command radius and must
remain stationary during their maneuver phase in order to receive the
divisional rally bonuses (both for leader and the general division
rallying bonus). Units obliged to move out of the danger zone as part of a
divisional rally order may still attempt to rally without the bonus rally
A division assaulted while under a rally order reverts to
defend status. The division commander may not attach to a unit if the division
began that turn under a rally order. When all the units of a rallying division
successfully rally, the division automatically reverts to defend status at
their current position.
Because most games
of Republique involve players who command groups of divisions, all orders above
divisional level are handled using a simple written order system. Corps or army
commanders whose on-the-board command figures are not in base to base contact
with each other are not allowed to discuss battle events or issue verbal orders
to each other during the game. Instead, they exchange written notes which are
delivered via assigned courier figures which travel 48cm per turn. If a single
player is in charge of several corps, he is not required to send messages to
himself, the written message system is meant purely as a control over verbal
contact between several players on the same side.
In order to send a written order, write the desired message
on a sheet of paper and assign it to a courier figure during the Change Orders
portion of the Command phase. This is best achieved by numbering all courier
bases and then writing the respective numbers on the outside of the folded
orders, which are then placed to one side until their delivery. During the
following movement phase, the courier moves toward the leader to whom the
message is aimed. At the beginning of the Change Orders segment following
the courier's arrival, the message recipient may unfold and read the
Leader figures can benefit units under their command by
boosting assault performance and by helping units to rally more quickly. In
order to lend their leadership value (if any) to an assault, leaders must be
attached to one of the participating units. Leaders may only attach to units
during the Command Phase, which is achieved by having a leader figure in direct
base-to-base contact with a unit. Once attached, the leader remains that way
until he is automatically detached at the end of the assault phase. While
attached to a unit, a leader does not lend his value to any other units under
his command. See the Assault section for details of attached leader
benefits. The process of attaching and detaching leaders does not affect the
movement of the unit to which the leader(s) attach.
During the Rally
Phase, unattached leaders lend their value to all friendly units under their
command which are within 6cm of their base. If the leader is a divisional
leader and his division is under rally orders, his value will apply to the
rally die rolls for all units within the division. Leader values are an
indicator of both the particular abilities of the man in question, and also an
expression of the army within which he commands. As a leader's value increase,
his battlefield abilities also increase. Note that any leader whose value is 3
is considered charismatic:
"-1" leaders - A minus one leader is either
widely despised or dangerously inexperienced, and is probably viewed by the
troops as someone who is going to get them killed. His presence hurts more than
it helps, and he is probably in his position because he is either a (probably
young) member of the royal family, or a guerrilla leader who has assumed
responsibilities out of his normal area. Minus-one class leaders only inflict
their leader modifier on units under their direct command.
leaders - A "Zero" leader is an average officer. He serves as a conduit for
the transmission of orders so that his divisions and other formations can
function, and his personal commitment and/or rapport with his troops is at a
level that is expected for the circumstances - middle of the bell curve.
"1" leaders - A "One" leader is definitely a cut above the rest and
probably belonged to the top half of his class (if he attended one). Class one
leaders only give their leader bonuses to units under their command.
leaders - A "Two" leader displays excellent abilities and is probably being
groomed for higher positions. Class two leaders only give their leader bonuses
to units under their command or to units in adjoining formations of the same
corps or wing.
"3" leaders - A "Three" leader is at the very top of
the command chain due to some combination of intelligence and personality. In
progressive armies, he represents the cream of the crop of the officer corps,
with an effective combination of ability, management technique and bravery. In
conservative armies he represents one of a tiny handful of officers with the
connections and charisma to both retain a command and become popular with his
troops for one of several possible reasons. Class three commanders can give
their leader bonus to all units of the same nationality, regardless of chain of
"4" leaders - A "Four" leader is either a super-genius, has
a near cult-like charisma or both. They are extremely rare and should only be
assigned to very special cases. For Republique, probably the only commander
assigned this value should be Napoleon Bonaparte.
National Leaders -
A national leader will usually be assigned one of the five previous ratings or
one of their own, and can give their leader bonus to all units serving on the
same side, regardless of nationality or chain of command.
«2.5 Morale and Rallying
Morale Conditions -
During the game, units can suffer Morale Hits which degrade their
effectiveness and increase the chances that they will attempt to spontaneously
withdraw. The ideal unit condition is formed, which represents a unit
fully under the control of its officers and able to perform as ordered. Formed
units have no morale hits. If one morale hit is suffered, the unit becomes
Unformed. If the unit has not rallied when another morale hit is
inflicted, it will become rattled. If another morale hit is suffered,
the units become shaken, and if a fourth morale hit is suffered the units
finally becomes demoralized. Units can recover from morale hits by rallying,
but they may also suffer more than one morale hit at once. Shown below are the
possible morale conditions and their respective restrictions, if any.
Formed - Unit behaves normally. Rallying - During the
rally step of every command phase, the phasing side (current attacking players)
must attempt to rally all of their units that have one or more morale hits. To
make a rally attempt, follow the sequence listed below:
Unformed -Unit may not change formation.
Rattled - Unit may
not change formation or deploy skirmishers.
Shaken - Unit may not
change formation or deploy skirmishers. Infantry will not attack cavalry or
artillery. Cavalry will not attack artillery. Artillery will not prolong toward
Demoralized - Unit may not change formation, deploy
skirmishers or unlimber and will not voluntarily move toward any enemies.
Artillery may limber, but only to move away from enemy units.Unit will
suffer one panic hit for each additional morale hit inflicted upon it by
skirmishers and/or artillery
- Take note of the rally table number that matches the
current condition of your unit. To do this, cross reference the troop grade and
morale status, this is your old rally number.
- Roll one die and modify the result using the die roll
modifiers listed in the Rally Table on the combat chart. Apply the modified
result positive or negative to the previously noted old rally
number. The resulting value is your New Rally Number.
- Match the new rally number with the value on the
corresponding rally table line to which it is equal-to or greater-than.
- The morale rating listed at the top of the matching
column from step 3 is the unit's new morale status. Note that it is possible
for a unit's morale to improve, get worse or remain the same.
Example 1: A rattled average unit
which has suffered 25% casualties rolls one die roll (1D10) with a result of a
5. The 25% casualty level modifies the result downward by two points (-2),
reducing it to a 3. That value is applied to the unit's starting value of 7
(the starting value for an average, rattled unit will always be a 7). This
raises the unit's value to a 10, improving its morale level to unformed. If the
die roll had been a 4, the modified effect on the starting value would have
been a 9, which would have been inadequate to improve the unit's morale. If the
die roll had been a 1, the modified effect would have been a -1. This would
have reduced the starting value to a 6, causing the unit to become
Example 2: The quick and easy way to remember - if
you have an unformed average unit (10 value) you need to roll a 3 or higher to
reform (13 value or higher makes you formed). The unformed average
10 is highlighted on the combat chart as your most common rally
Rally Die Roll Modifiers
- Division under rally order - If a division is
under a rally order and it currently has an active commander, each member unit
receives a +4 to its rally die roll.
- Leader within 6cm - Add the value of a leader's
rating (rounding down) to the rally roll of any units within 6cm of the leader.
This counts both for individual unit rally and divisional order rally.
- Percentage of unit lost - Subtract from the rally
die roll the amount that corresponds to the unit's current losses.
Replacing Fallen leaders - When a leader is killed,
another may replace him during the controlling player's next command phase. The
new leader will have a value of "0", and is only used to show the division's
location and its ability to receive orders. Players may adjust their command
structure to bring a more valuable leader into a vacated position. For example:
If a "3" value corps commander is killed, instead of replacing him with a "0"
rated commander, he could be replaced by one of his divisional commanders who
might be a "1". The "0" value replacement is given command of the divisional
position just vacated by the new corps commander.
No order changes are
permitted for a formation during the command phase following the death of their
leader. This rule applies to divisional, corps and army level formations and
there are no exceptions. As an additional note, the charismatic leaders rule
may not be used to "leverage" new orders by having leaders commandeer entire
formations which are temporarily leaderless. That rule is for use only to
change the structure of an intact chain-of-command, not to improve the
condition of one which is damaged. For example;
Corps Commander Lannes is wounded and carried from
the field at the end of an artillery fire phase. None of his divisional
commanders may receive new orders during their next command phase because the
replace leaders step comes after the change orders step. Even if
Napoleon is within movement range of one of Lannes' divisions, and the
commanding player really wants to change that division's orders, he can't (i.e.
- Napoleon may not ride up to the division and verbally change that division's
orders). The injury to Lannes is considered to have "damaged" not only the
officer, but also the command and communications for his corps and its
superiors. For further explanation, see the Questions & Answers section.
Each of the major troop types used for game play have
movement allowances which represent the total normal distances they are
allowed to move during any one player turn. These allowances are shown in the
Movement Box on the Combat Chart. Normal infantry and cavalry allowances are
20cm and 35cm respectively. Each of these troop types may also use an assault
movement bonus (also called charge movement), any portion of which may be used
during the course of a turn. Normal infantry and cavalry charge bonuses are 8cm
and 13cm respectively. This extra movement allowance permits a unit to cover a
greater distance during its turn, but use of any of the extra assault
movement will also cause the unit to suffer a morale hit at the end of the
turn. Officers and couriers move at the speed of charging cavalry (48cm).
A unit's movement allowance is based on forward movement as
measured from the front edge of its bases. Units may wheel (pivot) up to the
limit of their movement, and may move obliquely (diagonally) up to 45 degrees
from perpendicular (See figure at right). Moving backwards counts as rough
movement (double normal cost). Reversing the facing direction of a unit
does not count as a formation change. All movement penalties are
cumulative. For example a unit operating on the Prussian system of formation
change (see below) would move at one-quarter its normal speed if it were to
All troops used
for game play are considered to be operating under one of the two basic systems
of maneuver which were used during this era; the Prussian system and the French
system. The outcome of a battle can be dramatically effected by the selection
of maneuver systems employed. Players will not usually be able to choose which
maneuver system to use. The time period within which a scenario is staged will
usual be the deciding factor on which maneuver system is used by an army. The
following outlines explain the two systems and how they are represents in
Prussian Maneuver System - The Prussian system of
maneuver was used by most nations of Europe for a great part of the French
Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The system was a product of the pre-modern
era and required a complex series of evolutions in order to complete most
formation changes. Because a majority of European governments had closely
imitated Prussian maneuver doctrine for years, all countries fighting against
France during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Periods should be considered to
be on the Prussian system unless otherwise specified. See the troop lists by
nationality (listed on the main Republique page) for more information.
|Wheeling and Oblique Movement
Unit A has just completed an oblique movement.
Oblique moves may be conducted up to 45 degrees from perpendicular. Unit B has
just completed a wheel. Wheeling movement is measured along the outermost edge
of the wheel (i.e. - the longest).
Game Effects: In Republique, units on
the Prussian system suffer the following movement limitations: Wheeling,
oblique movement and passing through other combat units counts as rough (double
normal cost). Moving sideways counts as double rough movement (quadruple normal
cost). Changing formation subtracts 15cm from movement. Units may change
formation at any point during their movement unless they are within general
assault range (80mm) of enemy formations. Units on the Prussian system may not
change formation within 80mm of enemy combat bases.
French Maneuver System - The French system of
tactical maneuver was pioneered by Comte de Guibert after many years of
research following the Seven Years War. An interesting historical note:
Guibert's system was not known as the French system during this period. It was
still considered a variation of the Prussian system and was referred to as
such. However, the system itself and the grand-tactical innovations which
accompanied it can be fairly separated into a separate system for purposes of
This new system allowed units to split off by files to their
new positions instead of awkwardly wheeling by sub-units. Such simple
improvements greatly reduced the time needed to change formation, giving units
who used the system a tactical advantage against enemies who still used a more
rigid maneuver system. The new system was approved by the French government in
1791, and the benefits were quickly apparent. Russia, Austria and Prussia
probably did not implement their versions of the system until after 1812.
France's German allies were probably converted to the new system by 1808.
Britain appears to have adopted their own variation of the Prussian system
which was efficient enough to be rated in a similar category as the French
Game Effects: In Republique, units on
the French system may wheel, pass through other units, move diagonally and move
sideways at normal movement rates. Changing formation subtracts 5cm from
movement. Units may change formation at any point during their movement unless
they are within all-out assault range (40mm) of enemy formations. Units on the
French system may not change formation within 40mm of enemy combat
3.3 Forced Movement
to move according to a game mandated action or result will do so regardless of
their current turn status or movement allowance. These mandatory or "forced"
moves may occur during the following conditions:
- Movement Phase: Due to skirmish marker
recall and/or evasion due to displacement by advancing enemy combat bases.
- Artillery Phase: Due to morale hits
converting to panic hits against demoralized units (high base hit count can
result in multiple converted panic hits).
- Assault Phase: Movement required by assault
results, emergency rallies or army panic.
- Retrograde forced movements such as rout, retreat and
withdraw are not subject to terrain penalties or formation restrictions (rough
move, about-facing, passing through friendly units, etc.), and will always be
conducted out to the maximum distance required for that mandatory order. If the
mandatory move cannot be executed without direct stacking of formations (two
units sharing the same space) then the unit conducting the mandatory move must
execute the next move option down the list.
- Disengage = Move 9cm away from enemy,
- Withdraw = Move 15cm away from enemy,
- Fall Back = Move 22cm away from enemy,
- Retreat = Move 22cm away from enemy, facing
away from enemy.
- Rout = Full charge move away from enemy,
facing away from enemy.
- The forced movement of evading or recalling skirmish
markers may be conducted in any manner which does not violate the skirmish
marker deployment rules. Mandatory advances may be conducted only to the limit
of the moving unit's available movement remaining from the preceding Maneuver
Phase of that Player Turn. Forced advances are in turn subject to cancellation
by subsequent assault rounds which may change the advancing unit's
3.4 Movement Modifiers
- Road Movement = All infantry and cavalry
units must be in a road column formation in order to benefit from road
movement. Artillery units must be limbered in order to use the road movement
- Rough Movement = Any unit with more than
half of any one of its frontage bases within rough terrain will pay
double the normal movement cost. Double normal movement cost means that each
centimeter of distance moved under rough conditions actually costs two
centimeters of that unit's available movement allotment for that player turn
(see Terrain Effects). Units also pay double the normal movement cost when
conducting difficult maneuvers (see Maneuver Systems).
«3.5 Special rules
|A unit will pay a movement penalty for moving through
rough terrain so long as any portion of it remains within that terrain (e.g. -
the unit does not stop paying the penalty just because its front edge has
exited the terrain). Note that in Republique, units in rough terrain are not
considered unformed. This is because (for example) units in woods are "formed"
correctly for their current terrain situation. When exiting those woods, the
unit forms up for what would be considered normal in open terrain. This forming
up time is why the unit experiences ongoing movement penalty until it has
entirely cleared the terrain in question (also, portions of the unit are
continuing to exit the woods while the front companies are forming up).
- Skirmish capable units may deploy their maximum allowance of skirmish markers
at any time during their movement phase (see troop lists for unit skirmish
allowances). Skirmish markers must remain within 80mm of their parent unit.
They may not be placed in a position which puts enemy bases between them and
their parent unit. In order to count as being in skirmish order, skirmish
markers must remain at least 80mm away from each other (as measured between
closest point between bases). Skirmish markers operating less than that
distance but greater than one base width apart (generally 20mm) are considered
Packed Skirmishers. Friendly skirmish marker bases may not operate at
spacings less than one base width (one base width is minimum
Skirmish markers must always surrender their positions
(i.e. - give ground) to enemy combat bases and if displaced have
the following options:
Fighting Withdrawal: If displaced by
enemy units which are not moving to initiate an assault that will involve their
parent unit, the skirmish markers are only required to withdraw until the enemy
units have completed their move. The skirmish marker(s) do not need to return
to their parent unit. If the enemy formation has its own screen of skirmish
markers, the skirmishers for both sides shall take up positions halfway between
the parent formations or - if the defending skirmishers are at edge of cover or
other major terrain feature - the attacking skirmishers shall halt just short
of the feature (e.g. - advancing skirmish markers may not force defending
skirmish markers from edge of cover; only combat bases can do that). Any skirmish markers which fire during the
artillery phase may not rejoin a parent unit at all for the remainder of
that player turn.
Assault Actions: If displaced by enemy cavalry which is moving to
initiate an All Out assault that will involve their parent unit, the
skirmishers shall immediately return to their unit (remove from play). If
displaced by any enemy infantry units (all out or general assault) or enemy
cavalry units conducting a general assault, the skirmish markers may remain
deployed, subject to the same rules outlined above in Fighting Withdrawal. If
the two main assault formations are extremely close to each other, friendly and
enemy skirmish markers may intermingle at less than one base width spacing,
however the participating bases for each side must remain at minimum spacing in
relation to each other.
Cavalry - Cavalry units may react to enemy
units which advance to within 15cm of their front during an opposing
player's Maneuver Phase. Reacting cavalry may begin moving as soon as enemy
units approach to within line of sight or 15cm, whichever is less. Both sides
then pro-rate their movement until the reacting cavalry and enemy formations
have either completed their movement, contacted or approached within general or
all-out assault range. Reacting cavalry may not change formation.
Reacting cavalry may leave its divisional command radius and may react
while out of command range during the remainder of that turn. If during the
following turn that cavalry is still out of command range, it will fall under
the same rules as other units which have left command range.
Artillery - There are two types of movement for artillery;
Limbered and Prolong. Limbered artillery is attached to a wheeled
carriage drawn by horses. Prolong is unlimbered cannon being drawn by men or
horses while in a "fire ready" condition.
In order to accomplish both
movement and firing, each artillery battery may execute several specific
functions during the course of a turn. The available functions are: Move,
Unlimber, Fire, Prolong and Limber. Foot artillery may conduct two functions
each turn, and horse artillery may conduct three functions. For example; a foot
battery may move and unlimber during its movement phase but it may not fire on
its following fire phase. If it were to unlimber in place (without moving), it
could then fire on its upcoming fire phase. Batteries may not use the same
function more than once each turn (i.e. - may not prolong twice during the same
movement phase, etc.). Artillery which prolongs loses simultaneous fire
privilege against enemy artillery and must suffer enemy artillery effects
before they fire.
« 3.6 Terrain
Battlefield terrain will inevitably affect a units
ability to move freely around the field of battle. The
Battlefield section includes a list
of terrain features and their effects on movement. Units may form their front
line to local terrain such as hillside, edges of woods, blocks of buildings,
streams, etc. By contrast, units in the open must maintain their linear
deployments within the limits of the formations section. When paying movement
penalties for moving through rough terrain, a unit continues to pay that
penalty so long as any portion of it remains within the terrain in question.
See example figure at right.
4 ARTILLERY &
represent dispersed light infantrymen and sharpshooters who are deployed to a
unit's front and flanks in order to screen against enemy skirmishers and spread
disorder in enemy combat formations. Skirmish markers will interfere with
friendly artillery line-of-sight if they physically get between the artillery
battery and its prospective target, or if the friendly marker opposes an enemy
skirmish marker located inside the friendly battery's arc-of-fire. Skirmish
marker line-of-sight is blocked by all combat bases both friendly and enemy.
Skirmish markers within woods or buildings may project their 8cm engagement
range through the terrain if they are not blocked by friendly combat bases or
terrain effect restrictions. All skirmish bases within range of enemy troops
will fall into one of two categories: opposed or unopposed.
Blocking - A defending skirmish marker may
attempt to block the closest enemy skirmish marker that is within 8cm of it.
Blocked skirmish markers are considered to be effectively blocked or "screened"
and may not fire on enemy combat bases that turn.
M Hits -
Attacking skirmish markers not blocked by defending enemy skirmishers may
conduct harassing fire against enemy combat bases within 8cm. The skirmish
markers must have full line-of-sight to their target and may attack once per
turn by rolling a ten-sided die (1D10) and referring to the Skirmishing
section of the combat chart for range limits and results. Each M Hit
scored on the targeted unit will lower morale by one. A normal unit becomes
unformed, an unformed unit becomes rattled, etc. Skirmish bases cannot score M
hits on other skirmish markers but may, if unblocked and in range, fire at the
parent unit(s) from which the enemy skirmishers originate. All skirmish fire
results take effect at the end of the artillery phase (e.g. - skirmish and
artillery fire are considered simultaneous).
4.2 Artillery Fire
Artillery Fire step, artillery batteries for both sides may either fire upon
enemy units or announce that they are saving their fire (which may give a
firing bonus on later turns). A firing battery has an effective arc-of-fire
totalling 60 degrees measured from the outer front edges of its base. In order
to conduct artillery fire, repeat the following sequence for each battery:
Step 1: Cross index the range column on the
fire chart that matches the target range, with the battery type. This is your
An artillery battery may only fire once each player turn (twice each game
turn), although fire is not mandatory. Limbered batteries may not fire.
Artillery may not fire through or over friendly units, including skirmishers.
All standard artillery fire conducted during the Artillery Phase is considered
simultaneous. Batteries which suffer damage within the same phase will not have
their damage effects applied until its end, prolonged artillery is excepted;
batteries which prolonged during the preceding movement will lose simultaneous
fire privilege against enemy artillery (see artillery movement).
Step 2: Apply the Range Column modifiers by moving the
basic effect to the right or left, depending on modifier type.
3: Roll 1D10 and add or subtract the applicable die modifiers.
4: If the modified die roll is a 10 or greater, move the basic effect
another two boxes to the left. If the modified roll is a 9, move the basic
effect one box to the left. If the modified roll is a 2, move the basic effect
one box to the right, and if the modified roll is a 1 or less, move the basic
effect two boxes to the right. Note that in many case you will already know if
there are no column modifiers and go straight to the die roll. If the die
result is a very "middle" number like 5 or 6, you can quickly deduce that the
final basic effect is your original cross index result.
Mass Battery - Artillery bases may be merged into mass batteries.
Mass batteries are formed in four-base increments and must be in base-to-base
contact with a dedicated leader figure (mutliple mass-battery blocks may be
controlled by the one leader, but all member bases must remain in base-to-base
contact). If formed as part of the organization of an army at the start of game
play, the mass battery qualifies as a dedicated task force formation from the
start of play and is assigned to a specific corps or army column, behaving in
the same manner as any corps level artillery asset.
Each mass battery
block of four bases uses the Massed 4 line on the Artillery table for
calcuating its fire effect. This follows the same sequence as normal
single-base artillery fire, except the range column drift die roll only affects
the range columns on a result of 1 and 10. Mass
battery blocks must be for
Saving Fire - At the start of the
Artillery Fire segment, any ordered, stationary artillery battery may be
announced as saving fire. The battery cannot have moved during the
current player turn, may not fire during the current artillery phase and must
remain completely stationary. Place a saved fire marker in front of the
battery to represent its prepared status. The next time that the battery fires,
add one to the fire die roll and remove the saved fire status. If a battery
with saved fire moves in any way, the saved fire status is lost (this
includes changing facing or prolonging). Each artillery battery may only
accumulate a maximum of one saved fire marker at any one time. Saved
fire markers may not be stockpiled or traded among batteries. Artillery which
is out of command radius may not save fire. A battery with saved fire status
receives a bonus if involved in an assault. Involvement in an assault causes
all participating batteries to lose saved fire status. (See
Tactical Bonuses in the Assault section).
Demoralized batteries may not save fire and will lose saved fire status if they
«4.3 Artillery Range
The artillery range column modifiers move
your base fire effect to the left (more effective) or right (less effective).
Range column modifiers are all cumulative.
- Deep Target - Move one range column to the left
if: A) The battery's center of fire passes into or through three or more
target bases as measured from the leading edge of the target. The target bases
do not need to belong to the same unit, but must all be in open terrain, or B)
More than half of the battery frontage is within the 60 degree enfilade arc of
an enemy target (enfilade fire), or C) The targeted infantry unit is declared
to be in square formation. The deep target modifier is not cumulative (cannot
stack passing through three bases with firing from enfilade) and
it is not applicable against targets in woods, buildings or on the far side of
obstacles such as redoubts, swamps or rivers.
- Saved Fire - Move one range column to the left if
the firing battery successfully maintained saved fire status to the beginning
of the current artillery fire segment. Saved fire cannot be used by artillery
firing on the Mass Battery bombardment line.
- Elite Firing - Move one range column to the left
if the firing battery is elite troop grade (mass battery must be three-quarters
or more elite).
- At moving cavalry - Move one range column to the
right if over half of the artillery target is made up of moving cavalry bases.
To qualify as moving, the targeted cavalry formation must have moved at least
15cm during their last move opportunity. If on their last move opportunity
(including both regular move or breakthrough/overrun options) they did not move
at least 15cm, they are considered stationary for purposes of artillery fire
- At Solid or Heavy Cover - If half or more of a
target unit is in solid or heavy cover, the firing battery 1 or
2 range columns to the right. (see defense classes under
Assault). See terrain section for details about spotting depths and
- If an artillery battery's center of fire is
closest to the uncovered base(s) of an otherwise covered unit, the battery may
fire without cover modifiers at the uncovered portions. In such cases where the
cover modifiers are not applied against the battery, enemy bases still in cover
may not receive base hits as a result of that fire.
- Green Firing - Move one range column to the right
if the firing battery is green troop grade (mass battery must be three-quarters
or more green).
- Damaged Battery - Move one range column to the
right if the firing battery has suffered a base hit (damage).
- At Skirmishers - Move two range columns to the
right if the artillery targets are skirmish markers or fully deployed light
infantry units (units with one or more skirmishers per combat base
| Enfilade Fire - Per the Deep Target rule's Option B, the
artillery battery in the example at left is more than half within the arc-of-
fire being used as an enfilade arc (the same angle applies to both enfilade
exposure and artillery arc-of-fire). Units A and B are facing forward and
presenting their flanks to the artillery battery, thereby allowing the
artillery to double its fire points due to the enfilade effect. Note the
alignment (white arrow) of the arc to that edge of the unit nearest the
artillery battery. If the artillery battery were to the rear of the units, the
arc would be slid forward so as to be flush with the rear edges. This is
necessary due to the disparity between artillery base frontage and infantry
base depth. (drawing not to scale)
| Deep Target - Per the deep target
rule Option A, the battery's center of fire must pass through three or more
combat bases from the front of the target. In the example at right (drawing not
to scale), an infantry attack column is approaching a medium artillery battery.
The front base of the column is just within the 10cm range bracket and the unit
is three or more bases deep. This would qualify as a deep target.
4.4 Artillery Die Roll Modifiers:
Die roll modifiers are cumulative and may cancel each other out. The final
modified die roll only affects the final artillery result if it is a 1, 2, 9 or
- Joint Battery Fire - Add one point to a single die
roll with more than one battery firing on the same target this phase. For
example, if two batteries are firing on the same target, roll one die (1D10)
and resolved each battery's result based on that one roll, with a +1 on the die
- Each morale hit - Artillery batteries which begin
the artillery fire step with morale hits subtract 1 point from
the die roll for each hit (IE - a demoralized battery suffers a -4 die roll
- At packed skirmishers - Subtract 2
points from die roll if the artillery targets are skirmish markers that are
spaced less than the minimum 80mm.
- Passing fire - Subtract 2 points
from die roll if the battery is conducting opportunity passing fire during
enemy movement. Enemy infantry and cavalry must be within firing battery's
arc-of-fire for 8cm and 15cm of their movement respectively. Batteries with
saved fire status may not use passing fire.
Main Targets -
Each artillery battery must fire at the unit which is; 1) the closest
infantry/cavalry or artillery threat, i.e. - the closest combat base(s)
occupying the closest artillery range bracket to the battery (infantry and
cavalry targets take priority over artillery targets) and; 2) closest to the
battery's Center of Fire.
Different artillery bases may only converge
their fire onto one unit if these rules are not violated as a result or if a
massed battery is firing (measure from the centerline of each four-base mass
battery block to establish main target).
Secondary Targets - Secondary targets are units which
suffer collateral damage due to their close proximity to main targets. There
are two types of secondary targets: tandem and adjacent. Tandem secondary
targets may suffer damage both in place of, and in addition to the main
target. Adjacent secondary targets only suffer damage in place of the main
target. If both types of secondary targets are near a main target, an adjacent
target will only suffer hits if both main and tandem targets are
Tandem Target: A tandem secondary
target is any unit which is within the attacking battery's firing zone
and within 5cm of the main target's front. Tandem secondary targets must also
be in open terrain and may not be fully deployed light regiments in skirmish
order. Secondary tandem targets always suffer half the number of morale hits as
the main target in addition to the main target's morale hits.
They also share half of the total base hits rolled on the artillery fire chart,
always rounding down. If all bases in the main target are killed, the unit in
the tandem target position closest to attacking battery center-line will suffer
the balance of the required base hits (if any).
Target: An adjacent secondary target is any unit within the firing
battery's firing zone which is next to, and within the same range
bracket as, the main target. If all the bases in the main target unit are
destroyed as a result of one die roll and there are no tandem targets, the
adjacent secondary target closest to attacking battery center-line will suffer
the balance of the required base hits and morale hits not absorbed by the
original main target.
Compound Targets - If different unit types are
targeted as a result of either the Deep target or Secondary
target rules, use the modifiers most favorable to the battery. Enemy
artillery batteries which are positioned within 2cm of each other may be
treated as single compound targets for purposes of artillery fire.
Firing zone - A battery's firing zone is a
cone-shaped area beginning at an artillery battery's front through which
battery fire is directed at targets. The firing zone is tapered outward 10°
and may be swung throughout a battery's 60° degree arc-of-fire. It must be
free of friendly combat bases (or any parts thereof) and markers in order for
the battery to be able to fire. The firing zone should not be confused with the
arc-of-fire, which is the stationary zone representing a battery's available
Arc of Fire - A battery's arc of fire is a
cone-shaped area beginning at an artillery battery's front through which the
battery's firing zone may be swung in order to establish whether a potential
target can be fired upon. The arc-of-fire itself is tapered outward 60° and
is locked in a stationary position onto the battery front it may not be
moved or swung into different positions in order to bring potential targets
into the arc. Half or more of one of a formations bases must lie within a
battery's arc-of-fire in order to quality as a valid target. The outer edges of
the arc-of-fire are marked "60° Maximum Arc" as emphasis of the limits on
the battery's effective field of fire.
Line of Sight - A battery must have direct
line-of-sight to its target, it may not conduct indirect fire over obstacles,
friendly units or enemy units. See the terrain effects table for limits on
spotting units located within blocking features such as towns or forests.
Passing Fire - Artillery may Pass Fire at any
enemy unit moving across its front (more than 45 degrees from perpendicular).
Batteries saving fire may not use passing fire. Those batteries which conduct
passing fire may not fire during the following artillery phase, and they do not
receive saved fire as a result of that missed phase.
Skirmisher Targets - Regiments fully deployed into
skirmish order (one skirmish marker deployed for each base present) will
experience morale, base and panic hits in the same manner as other units. If a
skirmish marker itself is targeted and hits scored, the hits are passed
directly to the parent formation who will sustain the skirmish marker screen to
the best of its ability.
|Main Targets - At right is an example of the main target
rule. Batteries 1 and 2 must fire on the left infantry unit A. Batteries 3 and
4 must fire at the right infantry unit B. If the frontages of two units are
within a battery's frontage zone (as with battery 2), the battery must fire at
the unit closest to the battery's center line, in this case target unit A.
Battery 4 is allowed to fire obliquely into unit B because there are no other
targets within that range bracket which are either closer, or more directly to
the battery's front
|Secondary Targets - At left are examples of
both the tandem and adjacent secondary target rules. The front edges of all
example target units are within the same range bracket, and unit A is the main
target, with the artillery center of fire passing through it. Unit B is a
potential adjacent secondary target, and unit C, whose front is for this
example within 5cm of the front of Unit A, is a potential tandem
secondary target. If unit A suffers either two or three morale hits, then unit
C will suffer one morale hit. If unit A suffers four morale hits, then unit C
will suffer two morale hits. If unit A suffers three base hits, then it will be
destroyed, and the unassigned base hit will "carry over" to unit C, causing it
to lose one base. If units A and C were composed of only one base each and the
same loses were suffered, their two bases would be removed, along with one base
from unit B, which is positioned next to unit A and within the frontage zone of
the firing battery.
|Tandem Secondary Targets - At right is an example of a
tandem secondary target. Unit A is the main target, and unit B, whose front is
within 5cm of the front of unit A, is the tandem secondary target. If unit A
suffers two or three morale hits, unit B will suffer also suffer a morale hit,
which occurs in addition to that called for on the assault result. If unit A
suffers two base hits, then one is removed from unit A, but the second hit is
removed from unit B. If unit A suffers three base hits, then two bases are
removed from unit A, and one base from unit B.
|Tandem Secondary Targets 2 - At left is an example of a
tandem target in which the front formation is a very weak unit which has been
thrown forward in an attempt to protect the larger rear unit. If unit A suffers
any more than one base hit, the balance of base hits suffered will be taken out
of unit B. Morale hits carry over into unit B in the same manner as mentioned
in the previous examples.
4.6 Artillery Fire Results
units may directly suffer Morale (M) hit and/or base (B) hits as a result of
artillery fire, assign hits according to the Target rules. Demoralized infantry
or cavalry units which receive M or B hits as a result of artillery fire will
receive one Panic (P) hit for each hit it suffered. This includes units already
demoralized at the start of the artillery phase and units which become
demoralized during the phase. Demoralized artillery units which receive M hits
as a result of artillery fire will receive one base (B) hit instead (one B hit
for artillery is a damage hit). Any panic hits inflicted are still considered
for purposes of division panic even if B hits completely destroy the unit in
Example: A rattled unit which suffers two M and one
B hit will become demoralized with one P hit added. If the same unit started
the artillery phase unformed, it would suffer only the M and B hits because it
did not become demoralized during the phase. If the unit started the phase
shaken, it would suffer two P hits in the process of becoming
demoralized.«4.7 Hors de Combat and Panic
the following steps after all skirmish and artillery fire for the turn has been
resolved. If no leaders were within mass battery firing path or 6cm of units
that suffered morale or base hits, ignore this step and move on to the Assault
Hors de Combat - Check for leader casualties (hors
de combat); roll 2D10 for each leader who: A) Was within 6cm of any unit
that suffered morale (M) or base (B) hits during the phase in question, B) Was
attached to a unit involved in an assault during the phase in question or C)
Was in the firing path of a mass battery that fired. If a die roll is "doubles"
(two of the same number) reference the Hors de Combat table on the
combat chart to see whether the result is a casualty. Leaders rendered hors
de combat are immediately removed from the game.
All die roll
modifiers affect the individual doubles numbers; for example if a player rolls
a 2-2 during an emergency rally, the 2-2 becomes a 7-7 because of the emergency
rally +5. If a player does not roll doubles, the modifiers do not come into use
because non-double rolls cannot result in leader casualties. Checking for
leader casualties is the only time in Republique when 2D10 are rolled to gain a
Leader Death Die Roll Modifiers:
The final insult: If a dead leader's natural
(unmodified) die roll was a 0-0, all divisions under his command suffer one
- Emergency rally - Add 5 to the hors de
combat die roll if the leader is attempting an emergency rally. This modifier
is used only for leaders who have been declared as attempting an emergency
rally, and is only applied to the pre-rally casualty test. Applicable only
during the assault phase.
- Attached to an assault - Add one to the hors de
combat die roll if that leader was attached to a unit involved in an assault
during the current turn. Applicable only during the assault phase and also
applies to officers captured during the current turn (the enemy may have
captured a body).
- Each base hit (B) within 8cm - Add one to the hors
de combat die roll for each friendly unit within 8cm which suffered base hits,
add one point per base killed. Applicable during both the Artillery and Assault
- In cover - Subtract two from the hors de combat
die roll if half or more of the units within the 8cm of the leader are within
any type of cover. Applicable during both the Artillery and Assault
Panic Hits - Execute all involuntary
movements as a result of panic hits which occurred due to leader casualty or
morale hits on already demoralized units (cross index the Result column
in the corresponding panic level). As with other panic hits suffered outside of
the assault phase, any base hits suffered in the panic results count as
deserters and are immediately removed. Do not check for divisional or
inter-division panic at this time.
« 5.1 Assault
This phase represents the musket volleys, melees,
charges and countercharges which occur in the confusion of close combat. When
moving into assault contact with an enemy formation usually as the
attacker the commanding player must decide whether the attack will be a
General Assault or an All Out Assault. In both cases the
assaulting units must be facing toward the enemy formations and they block
assault activity for units behind them (see optional rules for more complex
deep attack alternatives). Defending units also block assault activity for the
formations behind them. Each unit involved in an assault must apply its entire
strength to that assault. Skirmish markers do not interfere with assault
proximity and do not apply their bases to the assault.
|Assault Contact - Diagram showing the All Out
Assault and General Assault zones, which extend 40mm and 80mm respectively from
the face and forward flanks of the formation. The outward angle of the zones
are 5º per side, which is the same as the artillery firing zone.
General Assault: Attacking formations approach to
within 80mm of the defending enemy formation, but greater than 40mm range. They
may initiate the assault from this distance per the steps outlined
All Out Assault: Attacking formations approach to within 40mm
of the defending enemy formation. They may initiate the assault from this
distance per the steps outlined below, which gains them the following benefits
for Win/Win assault results: a) Inflict one extra M hit on losing enemy units
and batteries; b) Gain one extra assault bonus move and c) Add a "C" tactical
bonus to the next two assault die roll rounds made during this assault phase
(All out assault bonuses are not valid beyond the current turn/phase - they
will typically only apply to breakthrough assaults and their equivalents).
Each assault is resolved in the Assault section of the Combat Chart as
Step 1: Each player adds all applicable
assault modifiers for their formations and applies them to the result of one
ten sided die roll (players roll 1D10 each).
Step 2: The attacker
then subtracts the defender's modified result from his own to arrive at the
die roll difference.
Step 3: Refer to the die roll difference
values shown in the corresponding Roll column located in the combat
chart's Assault table. High rolling attacker values (defender loses) force
results that are above the zero line and apply to the defending units. Low
rolling attacker values (attacker losers) force results that are below the zero
line and apply to the attacking units. Three results in the middle of the
assault table force either a break-off or re-roll of a second round.
Step 4: Immediately apply the resulting panic hits, base hits and
artillery effects (damage and capture) to the involved units according to the
attacker type (Infantry or Cavalry). All initial assault rounds must be
resolved before re-rolls, breakthroughs overruns are carried out. Mark
breakthrough locations before moving on to resolve other assaults.
5: Without re-rolling either dice, conduct the same die roll difference
comparison using only the natural (unmodified) die roll numbers.
If the side which lost the modified die result also loses the natural die roll
(called Lose/Lose), they will suffer morale hits based on the difference
between the two natural die roll results. Those die differential M hits are
applied to the losing unit(s) based on their troop grade as posted alongside
the troop grade list in the Assault Modifiers column. All Lose/Lose morale hits
due to assault are rounded up; so if the difference is a one or two against an
average unit, it would still received one M hit. If the side that wins both
modified and natural die rolls (called Win/Win) has any existing morale hits,
they will lose one hit (e.g. - their morale improves by one level). Win/Lose
result combinations result in no M hits, as do natural die roll
Note: The side which loses the natural die roll will suffer the
required M hits even if the modified assault table result is a tie or has a
"roll again" result. The newly applied M hit takes effect immediately and
factors into any following assault rounds.
Step 6: Leaders which
have been attached to units involved in the current assault round must roll for
hors de combat. A leader who has led an emergency rally must also roll a hors
de combat check if the assault in question occurred as a result of the
Step 7: After the first round of assaults is
resolved, conduct all breakthrough movements and other mandatory movements (if
any) required by the assault results. Then repeat steps 1 through 6 for any
additional assault rounds which are required to be resolved.
Example: Attacker Unit A is a veteran infantry
line. Defender Unit B is an average infantry column. Unit A rolls a natural 8
and Unit B rolls a natural 3. After die roll modifiers, the A to B modified
difference is 11 to 3, which scores an attacker win by eight points, which
inflicts 3P and ½K.
Unit B also lost the natural die roll by five
points, and being an average unit it suffers one morale hit for each three
point difference in the natural die roll (rounding up) it also suffers 2M hits.
If Unit B had lost the natural die roll by four points, it still would have
received a 2M hit.
Follow-up Assaults - Some assault results may trigger
several rounds of die rolling before final resolution. As long as enemy units
continue to face within 40mm of each other (not 80mm) they will continue to
trigger new general assaults. Note that all follow-up assaults are always
general assaults. Stalled assaults occur when units required by the
rules to continue or breakthrough have insufficient movement to do so (see
| Assault Ranges - In the example at left, the attacking
infantry Unit A is all-out assaulting defending infantry Unit Y because it is
facing within 40mm of that unit. Even though A is past Units Y's flank line,
the defending unit is not outflanked because it is in buildings. Also, even
though another friendly unit (Z) is facing within 40mm of Unit Y, the defenders
still have only two bases involved in the assault (all of Y and none of Z).
However Unit Y can never be considered outnumbered by more than 3:2 because it
is in buildings, so had Unit A been a four or five base unit, the assault
modifiers used by Unit Y would never exceed 3:2 for outnumbering.
| Assaulting Units - In the example at right, units A and X
are assaulting each other, and units B and Z are assaulting each other. Unit Y
however, is in the proximity of two enemy units. Units will always be involved
with enemy units which are closest. So unit Y is involved in the B-Z assault.
Players could conduct all five units as one grand assault, but only if
both sides agreed. Otherwise, assaults should be broken down into the smallest
Mixed Assaults - When some attacking units advance
to the All Out Assault range, while other adjoining units remain at General
Assault range, this is called a Mixed Assault. If a mixed assault group wins
the modified assault round, they only gain the extra morale hit inflicted on
the enemy. The other bonuses typical of a full all-out assault are
Local Breakthrough - Attacking units which are
rendered out of assault contact range with enemy formations due to artillery or
skirmish fire related withdrawals may expend the balance of their remaining
normal or assault movement allowance to advance and/or establish assault
contact with fresh assault targets. Such local breakthroughs may not
violate standing divisional orders. Players intending to move qualifying units
must declare so at the start of the Assault Phase, and all such movements must
be completed before assault resolution begins.
Formations - When an attacking unit is facing in assault contact with two
different enemy formations as part of a broader assault involving numerous
regiments, the attacking player may choose to split that unit's participation
into two different assaults instead of allowing that one bridging
formation to combine the greater group into a large and potentially
unwieldy assault calculation. The following factors must be met into order to
split a bridging formation for participation in two different assaults:
- The attacking unit's base split must correspond as much
as possible to the boundary between the two defending assault blocks.
- Only the attacker (phasing player) may split units. The
defender for the turn may not.
- The bridging formation must respond to assault results in
a way which will preserve the unit's integrity it may not split up. For
example, if one assault result calls for a bridging unit to advance and the
other calls for the unit to fall back, the unit must fall back in order to
preserve its integrity.
- Panic and morale hits on bridging units are not
cumulative. Only the worst single cases per assault round will apply, although
the worst cases for each type (panic, morale, etc) may originate from different
assaults. For example, if one assault inflicts 2M and 2P on the attacking force
and another assault inflicts 3M and 2P on the other attacking force, a bridging
formation split between the two assaults will receive 3M and 2P.
- The attacking player is not allowed to pre-calculate the
various possible odds and modifier combinations for an assault before declaring
whether a bridging formation (if present) will or will not be split. The
decision must be made based on an brief examination of the final unit
dispositions at the end of the maneuver phase and should not take more than
Artillery - Each limbered or unlimbered
artillery battery within assault range of an enemy unit counts as one combat
base in the same manner as an infantry or cavalry base. A massed artillery
battery (several batteries with bases touching) counts as one unit, with each
base also equalling one regular combat base.
attacked by a breakthrough assault may not fire at the assaulting units,
however they may receive the following tactical bonuses if any of the attacking
bases are within the battery's arc-of-fire: Artillery which did not fire on the
current player turn receives a Bonus C of +1 on the assault die roll; Artillery
with saved fire receives a Bonus B of +2 on the assault die roll, and if it is
a single battery it may re-face up to 45º to bring attacking bases into
its arc-of-fire. Massed batteries may not re-face, but member batteries at each
end may re-face up to 45º to bring attacking bases into their respective
Cavalry - Cavalry may not use or inflict the In
Column, Cavalry or Outnumbered assault modifiers when
fighting in or through rough terrain, buildings or against infantry squares.
The chart below outlines which modifiers are lost under these
in/through Rough Terrain
Type: Cavalry = If No, the cavalry unit(s) may not use their
respective Light, Medium, Heavy or Armored cavalry modifiers. In Line = If
No, the cavalry may not use the +1 modifier for being in line.
Outnumbered = If No, the unit which is fighting against the cavalry will
not suffer any outnumbered modifiers, regardless of actually outnumbered
in/through Rough Terrain = Use this column if half or more of the
assaulting cavalry bases are within rough terrain, moved through rough terrain
during the course of the current player turn, or if they are assaulting units
within rough terrain. Assaulting in Buildings = Use this column if the
units being engaged by the cavalry qualify as being within buildings. Solo
versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are attacking
infantry squares while unaccompanied by friendly infantry formations. With
Infantry versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are
attacking infantry squares while accompanied in the assault by friendly
infantry formations. The supporting infantry formations must be combat units
(not skirmish markers) and may be in general or all-out assault
«5.3 Assault Modifiers
modifiers are added or subtracted from the assault roll to complete a modified
assault roll. For optional assault rules, see the Assault section of the
Optional rules page, which addresses more advanced issues such as assault
averaging of both troop grades and cavalry types.
|Infantry in square against
assaulting cavalry without infantry (skirmish markers do not count).
|| Medium woods
Heavy wooden buildings.
Artillery with saved fire (first assault round only)
|Artillery which didn't fire
this player turn (first assault round only).
- Leader Rating - A unit with an attached leader
receives that leader's rating (LR) added to the assault roll. The unit must be
within the leader's chain of command unless the leader is
- Troop Grades - Attacker and/or defender add or
subtract the corresponding troop grade modifier if the greatest percentage of
bases present are elite, veteran, green or militia grade troops
- Cavalry Grades - Attacker and/or defender add to
the die roll if any friendly light, medium, heavy or armored cavalry is
present in the assault. Only the modifier for the heaviest cavalry unit present
- Unopposed Overlap - Attacker adds two (+2) to the
die roll if infantry unit frontage is at least one base wider than their
primary opponent and the opponent's flank on that side is
unsupported - in this case unsupported is defined as no enemy units in
opposition to any of the overlapping base(s). Opposition is defined as
any enemy combat bases facing within 15cm. Attacking cavalry units qualify for
the unopposed overlap bonus if their frontage overlaps the primary opponent's
formation at all, even if the overlap distance is less than a millimeter. Note
that the attacking formation must be entirely wider than the defender; having
overlap on one flank and not being at least matching frontage on the other
flank does not qualify. Unopposed overlap cannot be used by cavalry assaulting
solo against infantry declared to be in square.
- In Line (inf/cav)- Attacker and/or defender add
one (+1) to their die roll if more than half of bases present are from infantry
or cavalry units in line to a maximum of +1 point (the bonus is non-cumulative,
a player does not gain a +2 modifier if the half or more bases are a mix of
infantry and cavalry deployed in line). Single base units and demoralized units
cannot claim the line bonus.
- Morale Hits - Attacker and/or defender subtract
the corresponding minus modifier from the die roll if: a) Over half of the
bases in assault contact belong to units with morale hits, or b) the greatest
percentage of bases present belong to units with morale hits.
- Outnumbering Ratio - The combatants with the
lesser number of bases will subtract from the die roll if the outnumbered ratio
is equal to or greater than 3:2, equal to or great than 2:1, etc. Units in
buildings may not be outnumbered by enemy infantry by greater than 3:2
regardless of actual ratio. Units assaulted only in the flank or rear may not
inflict outnumbered modifiers. See special cavalry rules for limitations on
- Each Base Hit - Attacker and/or defender subtract
one point (-1) from their die roll for each of their own bases lost from
participating units so far during the current player turn. This includes bases
lost to artillery fire in the preceding phase this turn.
- Max P hits this phase - Attacker and/or defender
subtract one point (-1) from their die roll for each panic hit suffered so far
during the current assault phase (this will typically be units fighting second
or third assault rounds after having suffered panic hits).
- Fully deployed skirms - If the greatest percentage
of bases present belong to units with fully deployed skirmishers, attacker
and/or defender subtracts two points (-2) from their die roll.
- Outflanked - Defender subtracts three from the die
roll if more than 50% of bases present are from outflanked units (if assaulting
unit finishes its move to assault with any part of its bases past the defending
unit's flank line). Void if target is hit in rear. Note that infantry
squares and units in buildings have no flank (i.e. - their flank zone is
considered part of the front).
- Attacked in Rear - Defender subtracts five from
the die roll if more than 50% of bases present are from units being assaulted
in the rear (assaulting unit finishes its move to contact with any part of its
bases past the defending unit's rear line). Note that infantry squares
have no rear. Units in buildings do have a rear.
- Tactical Bonus - Attacker and/or defender add 1, 2
or 3 points to their die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present
qualify for one of the tactical bonuses shown here. Non-cover tactical
bonuses listed in Class C apply only toward defenders, and only during
assaults. Cover effects apply to both attackers and defenders. Covering
terrain also modifies artillery fire (see Artillery Fire Modifiers).
|Flank and Rear Examples - The
flank line for unit A is shown along the rear of the front bases,
parallel to the unit's front. The rear lines originate at the outer
rear base corners, perpendicular to the unit's front. Unit Y is in a
flanking position because part of one of its bases is past the flank line for
unit A. Unit Z is striking in the rear because part of one of its bases is past
the rear line for unit A. Units struck in both the flank and rear will only
suffer the worst of the two effects (-4), not both.
«5.4 Assault Results
Losses - Both attacking and defending units may suffer morale hits, base
hits and panic hits as a result of their involvement in a general or all-out
assault. All results for each round of assault combat are applied
simultaneously, as are the mandatory movements which may be required.
Morale hits - All units which lost the
natural die roll in an assault round will suffer the number of morale hits
called for by the assault chart results. Affected units are immediately marked
with the corresponding hits markers to show their new condition. All
requirements to roll again are done so with modifiers adjusted for the new
morale condition(s).Units unable to withdraw, retreat or rout away from the
enemy without coming in contact with other enemy combat bases will surrender.
All breakthrough, break-off and overrun moves are carried
out after the first assault round is completed. Subsequent assault rounds are
conducted in the same manner.
Base hits - Base (B) hits inflicted due to
assault results are first distributed evenly among units which were within
closest contact with the enemy units. Bases lost are removed immediately from
play, and before surrender results are applied. If possible, base hits should
be removed from the middle of a unit in order to avoid biasing established
assault contact (unit may close bases at end of phase).
Hits - Panic hits control the manner in which units respond to their
assault loss. To find a unit's panic response, refer to the corresponding panic
level in the Panic Index (panic levels are 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) and cross reference
the troop grade of the losing units with that panic level's result
column. The results shown indicate the type of mandatory retrograde movement
which the losing unit must conduct, either Ds (disengage), W (withdrawal), F
(fall back), Re (retreat) or Rt (rout). Surviving artillery batteries may
limber-up in order to disengage, withdraw, fall back or retreat. Artillery
batteries required to rout are abandoned (captured) regardless of other
Direction - Units will conduct
their panic hit movement in the following order of preference: 1) Directly away
from the enemy threat. 2) Directly toward friendly lines. In some cases a unit
may end up moving away at an angle that is an average between these two options
(Example: If outflanked, a retreating unit may angle away from the threat as it
attempts to return to friendly lines). If friendly formations are directly to a
unit's rear, it will pass through those formations (if movement distance
warrants it) in the process of executing their panic hit
Group Surrender - A unit which is unable to
execute its panic hit movement without passing through an enemy formation (e.g.
- it is surrounded and/or pinned against an obstacle) will conduct the
following actions by troop grade: Elite units will overrun the enemy formation
and return to friendly lines at the cost of one base hit (1B). All other troop
grades will surrender.
Lose/Lose Passthrough - Units which
suffered lose/lose assault results and pass through friendly formations that
are within 9cm to their rear may inflict additional M and P hits on those
friendly units. These hits can only happen in cases of Infantry/Artillery
passing through Infantry, or Cavalry passing through all types. These
Passthrough Hits only happen with the two worst results in each
category, consult the table below for specific hit types that will be inflicted
on formations that are 9cm or less directly in the path of the
||Friendly within 9cm
Loss Number - The panic result may
also include a loss number, which represents the number of bases taken
prisoner as a result of the assault. Losers required to surrender prisoner
bases will do so only after base hits have been withdrawn. Prisoner bases are
taken first from all-out contact units of the lowest troop grade present,
followed by higher troop grade bases within the all-out contact range bracket.
Only if all bases in the all-out contact zone are lost may remaining unassigned
prisoners be taken from general assault contact units. If a unit is completely
destroyed during the course of the assault phase, the parent division must
still check for panic (does not apply to a unit destroyed during the artillery
phase, even if that unit was already in assault contact).
Example: A veteran grade unit suffers two panic hits as a result of an
assault. The controlling player will refer to the second line of the Panic
2 index column (the second line corresponds with the Veteran troop grade
units). The Result column indicates an F, meaning that the unit
will fall back without further loss. If the unit had been composed of green
quality troops, it would have received a Rt-1 result, which would result
in one rout move, and the loss of one base as prisoners.
Carry Position - Attacking formations allowed to carry a position
are permitted to advance into the position originally taken up by the enemy
units before their departure. Carrying a position allows a unit a certain
amount of latitude to adjust their orientation, but only if they have
sufficient movement allowance remaining. This includes any limbered artillery
involved in an assault, which may also participate in a move to carry a
position including unlimbering in support of other friendly formations. Troops
carrying a position may deploy skirmish markers if that does not violate other
game or scenario rules, they may also conduct a single retrograde pivot of up
to 45º in order to refuse their flank to an imminent threat or to improve
alignment with adjoining friendly units.
Breakthrough - Assault
results may either allow or order attackers to continue moving to assault
contact, which is called a breakthrough. While conducting this continuing
movement, they are subject to normal movement rules and may initiate new
assaults against units. They may not violate or exceed their current orders
while breaking through, nor may they exceed their maximum movement allowance as
measured from the start of their movement phase. Units whose assault results
state that they must breakthrough will move to the limit of their full
assault movement (even if movement orders are violated as a result) unless
countermanded by a new assault result. Units which use their assault movement
bonus will suffer one morale hit at the end of the turn. Units which may
breakthrough have the option of downgrading their breakthrough option to a
mandatory carry position result.
Overrun - An overrun
allows assaulting cavalry to break past or through a defeated defender (if any
remains) and to continue moving to assault contact against potential assault
targets to the rear of the defeated defender. The cavalry may continue
assaulting units in this manner as long as it has the available movement and
continues to achieve assault results allowing further movement and action.
Cavalry which remains in all-out contact range (40mm) with an enemy unit due to
refusal to conduct a voluntary breakthrough must conduct further assault rounds
until the all-out contact is broken. If no other enemy units are within range
of a cavalry unit's remaining post-overrun movement allowance, the cavalry may
still overrun the defender and expend movement to the maximum allowable as part
of a general penetration of enemy lines.
In cases where an enemy unit
suffers panic hits that keep it in the path of an overrunning cavalry formation
especially in cases where the cavalry runs out of available movement
a second assault round may result. This can give the effect of a
prolonged running down of the panicking defenders.
Break off -
Allows engaged cavalry or infantry to back out of all-out assault contact range
with the enemy. This results in one additional morale hit on the unit(s) that
break-off. Break off details by assault type are as
Cavalry Assaulting: If
the assault result was a "0" the assaulting cavalry unit conducts a Fallback
move to break-off. If the assault result was a "-1" the assaulting cavalry unit
conducts a Retreat move to breakoff. In both cases the unit(s) suffer a morale
hit at the end of the breakoff move (in addition to any morale hit(s) the unit
may have suffered as part of the assault
For all "Roll Again or Break-off" results, the assaulting infantry has first
option to break-off. If that option is exercised, all participating attackers
conduct a withdrawal move to break-off assault contact. If the assaulting
infantry declines the break-off option, the defending units may exercise
withdrawal in the same manner. In both cases the unit(s) suffer a morale hit at
the end of the breakoff withdrawal move (in addition to any morale hit(s) the
unit may have suffered as part of the assault result). If neither side chooses
break-off, another assault round is rolled for ("Roll
Capture Artillery - The corresponding number are
captured, either half of artillery bases present or all present. If on the same
player turn the capturing troops lose breakthrough assaults which result in a
loss of the position which contain the captured artillery, the captured
artillery is marked off as destroyed instead of captured. Note that regardless
of other assault results, artillery which rout due to panic hits are considered
abandoned and therefore captured.
Capture Officer - Either half
or all of the officers attached to the assaulting side are captured. For the
half-captured result, if one or two officers are present, one of them is
considered captured. If three or more officers are attached, two are considered
Stalled Assaults - Assaulting
units which have insufficient remaining movement to execute carry position,
breakthrough or break-off results are stalled. Stalled units shall still
conduct further assault rounds against their opposing enemy formations until
they are no longer facing within the 40mm assault range of each other.
Artillery effects - If their results are not separated from the main
assault results by a comma (typical with infantry attackers) artillery
batteries suffer the same results as other assault losers and are subject to
the same morale and panic hits. Additional artillery effects such as damage or
capture may also be called for by the assault results, either partially or in
For artillery results that are separated from the main results by
a comma (typical with cavalry attackers) the artillery suffers only the results
shown to the right of the comma. Note that portions of the cavalry
results column include both types of artillery results (with and
Mixed Assaults - If both infantry and cavalry
attack victoriously together in a single assault, each attacking unit will use
the reaction column corresponding to their type: cavalry using the cavalry
column reactions and the infantry using the infantry column reactions.
Attacking cavalry may ignore the cavalry reaction if the participating infantry
rolls again for a new assault round. In such a case, the cavalry which
otherwise might be forced to breakthrough or breakoff may instead adopt
the infantry's reaction and remain to participate in the new assault
Defenders which lose to a mixed infantry/cavalry force will
suffer the combination of the worst possible effects for the corresponding
assault table result line, including morale, panic and base hits, artillery
damage and officer losses.
5.5 Emergency Rally
any assault, the commander of the losing side may use local unattached officer
figures to attempt an emergency rally of units which lost the just-ended
assault. Emergency rallies may be attempted on any unit(s) within 6cm of the
rallying leader, and are conducted before moving the losing unit(s).
Step 1: Announce the Rallying leader.
Step 2: Roll on the leader death chart using the +4 emergency rally
modifier and any other modifiers which apply. Note that the leading
attack/defense modifier and the emergency rally modifier should
never be used together, since leaders already attached (i.e. - leading) may not
conduct emergency rallies.
Step 3: If the leader survives, he may
roll to rally the friendly unit(s), applying double his normal
value and any other modifiers which apply. If the unit(s) rallies, a
new assault round is immediately resolved, with the rallied unit(s) occupying
their original positions, and the bonus for the leader applied as if he were
attached to the rallied forces (even though he is not).
Leaders may only conduct one emergency rally per assault
phase. They may however, simultaneously emergency rally several units who all
participated in the same losing assault round. Assaulting cavalry may ignore
successful emergency rallies and continue with an overrun or break-off move. In
either case, the rallied unit will reform in its original position and facing,
behind the assaulting cavalry if necessary. Infantry who successfully emergency
rally against cavalry may form square.
Complete Rally - In the event that all the units in a
division successfully rally, all panic hits in that division are
5.6 Death and Disorder Charge Disorder - Units which use any of their
assault bonus movement (also known as charge movement) during the turn will
suffer charge disorder at that turn's end. Units suffering charge
disorder suffer one morale hit, but only after all assaults, emergency rallies
and counterattacks are resolved.
Combat - Roll 2D10 for each leader who was attached to any unit involved in
an assault during the current Assault Phase, including captured officers.
Leaders who have already rolled for death due to direct participation in
assault rounds or emergency rallies are exempt from this final roll.
Definitions for the hors de combat die roll modifiers appear in the
Leader Death and Panic section of the Artillery &
Skirmish Fire phase.
End of Phase - At the end of the
assault phase, both sides gather any remaining bases killed during the phase
and close ranks of units which have suffered base hits by moving their bases
back into contact. Units may close ranks on the center of the unit, to the left
or to the right, so long as one unit base remains as the stationary anchor for
the rest of the closure.
|« 6 PANIC
6.1 Panic Test Procedure
tests are conducted at the end of a turn by any divisions which have suffered
any panic level five (Level 5) events during the course of the turn sequence.
These panic tests use the same combat chart table as the panic hits which occur
during the assault phase. However, divisional panic tests employ this table in
a slightly different manner.
In order to conduct a divisional panic
test, cross-index the average troop grade of the testing division with the
fail column on the Panic 5 section. Once the failure number is
established, the player controlling the division then rolls one die and
modifies its result using the panic die roll modifiers. If the modified die
roll value equals or exceeds the division's fail number, the division is
immediately marked as being in a panicked state and all member units will
conduct the resulting forced movement listed immediately to the left of the
fail column (fall back, retreat or rout). No morale hits are added to units due
to a failed divisional panic test, however if a division routs, all member
units will suffer one morale hit at the end of their assault move away from the
enemy (already demoralized units suffer no further morale or panic hits because
of this, and in most cases any demoralized formations will have already
conducted their forced retrograde move for the turn). Divisions which have
panicked have their orders automatically reset to Defend.
the division which have already conducted other forced retrograde moves during
the current turn's assault phase will only move enough to match the new
mandatory move result. For example; if a unit had already conducted a Fallback
out of an assault and it's division then panics and routs, the unit will
conduct the extra retrograde movement that reflects the difference between the
Fallback and Rout result (for infantry in this case, it would involve turning
backs to the enemy and moving an extra 9cm away from the enemy and/or toward
If a loss number is shown to the right of the
panic result, the division will lose that number of bases to desertion
(remember this is a dual-purpose table and that this same loss number is used
during the Assault phase to indicate bases captured as prisoners). Deserting
bases are taken randomly, first from the lowest troop grade present, followed
by progressively higher troop grades within the division. Deserted bases are
removed from game play and not returned unless playing multiple-day scenarios.
Once all panic test rounds have been resolved, all panic markers are removed
from affected divisions, panicked division orders are reset to Defend status
and the next player turn is begun.
« 6.2 When to
There are two conditions which can trigger divisional panic
tests. If more than one condition happens to a division, it will simultaneously
roll one die (1D10) for each condition, suffering the worst result which
occurs. Because panic test failures can trigger panic tests in adjoining
divisions, the panic test phase is conducted in "rounds" during which
progressive groups of divisions will roll for panic. All panic tests conducted
within a test round are considered to be simultaneous, and resulting mandatory
movements are executed only after all necessary die rolls for that round have
1) Internal Panic - A division must
roll for panic if any of its units suffered panic level five (Level 5) hits
during the assault phase. Note that if the unit(s) which experienced the P5 hit
were entirely destroyed, deserted or captured, the division still reacts per
the internal panic rule for its member units having suffered a P5 event. Units
which suffer various panic hits that total to five or higher without
experiencing a P5 hit do not have to check for internal panic.
Adjoining Panic - A division will roll on the panic level five column
if any adjoining division within 8cm becomes panicked during the Panic Test
Phase. Divisions are considered adjoining if the closest points of their
closest units are within 8cm of each other, or within line of sight, whichever
Each division may only test once for each panic condition
during the course of a panic phase. For example; if a division passes an
internal panic test, only to have an adjoining division fail a similar
test, the subject division must then roll an adjoining panic test. If
however, it passes that panic test only to have yet another adjoining division
panic during the same round (or any subsequent round of that phase), it will
not have to roll a second adjoining panic test.
Panic Die Roll
Modifiers: The following modifiers increase or decrease the failure die
Panic Base Hit Modifiers: The following modifiers
add base hits to the existing loss numbers. All base hit modifiers are
cumulative (e.g. - Routing out an assault in the rear, out of a town and across
a bridge results in four bases taken prisoner for an average unit).
- Adjoining panicked division is heavy support- Add
three points (+3) to the panic die roll if a panicked adjoining division counts
as a heavy support formation (elite troop grade and/or heavy cavalry
- Each extra demoralized unit (beyond first)- Add
two points (+2) to the panic die roll for each additional demoralized unit
present beyond the first one. For example: A unit with one demoralized unit
would not take any extra modifier. A unit with three demoralized units would
add four points to the panic die roll.
- Adjoining unshaken division is heavy support -
Subtract one point from the panic die roll if an adjoining unshaken division
(i.e. - one which has no shaken or demoralized units) is a heavy support
formation (elite troop grade and/or heavy cavalry present).
- Rolling division is unshaken - Subtract one point
from the panic die roll if the rolling division is unshaken.
- Retreat/Rout - Add 1 base (B) hit to
the loss number for the following conditions: Unit is retreating or routing out
of: Town terrain (blocks, buildings); across bridges or fordable streams or is
retreating/routing away from an assault in the rear.