The War Times Journal Home Page


Admiralty is a set of miniature wargame rules that re-create battles from the age of the fighting sail. The game concentrates on the core features of period naval combat, including sailing, cannon fire and boarding actions. The rules are geared to allow large battles to be fought over realistically scaled areas of the ocean as players struggle to pummel, dismast and capture their opponent's vessels. Admiralty is split into six sections, each of which deal with a particular aspect of the game, which includes playing aids such as ship logs, firing arcs and the all-important combat chart.

"Was I to die this moment, 'Want of Frigates' would be found stamped on my heart. No words of mine can express what I have, and am suffering for want of them."

Horatio Nelson, Mouth of the Nile, 9th August, 1798

"I have known that diverse strange ships have passed through the very midst of a main fleet even at noon day, without any discovery made upon them until it was too late."

1 Introduction:
Scales, Bases, Equipment, Turn Sequence, Glossary
2 Movement:
Straight, Turning, Speed, Modifiers, Collisions, Special, Advanced
3 Command:
Speed Change, Signals, Boarding Parties, Surrender, Advanced
4 Firing:
Sequence, Targeting, Modifiers, Damage Hits, Critical Hits, Advanced
5 Boarding:
How to, Advanced
6 Repairs:
Feature Small Medium Large
100 Meters 21mm 42mm 84mm
1 Cable 40mm 80mm 160mm
1 Nautical Mile 40cm 80cm 1.6m
Each Turn 2 Minutes 2 Minutes 2 Minutes
Each model 1 Ship 1 Ship 1 Ship
Model Scale 1/4800 1/2400 1/1200

« 1.1 Game Scales
Admiralty was designed for use with any scale of fighting sail miniatures. The large scale format shown in Figure 1 is the default scale discussed throughout the rules, and is normally used with 1/1200 scale miniatures. The medium scale format is normally used with 1/2400 scale ships and the small scale format is meant primarily for the tiny 1/4800 scale models. Both the small and medium scales will require corresponding adjustments to default game distances mentioned in the text and charts.

« 1.2 Ship Bases
The mounting of naval miniatures on bases for game play is optional. For players who do use bases, the recommended size for standard 1/2400 scale ships-of-the-line is approximately 25mm x 50mm, with the ship mounted lengthwise on the base. For 1/1200 scale the sizes can be more finely distinguished, for example we usually mount 74 gun ships of the line on 70mm x 30mm bases, and 100 gun ships-of-the-line on 80mm x 35mm bases. For purposes of game play and rules discussion, the terms model, ship and base are used interchangeably throughout the text. In all cases the reference is a general one meant to encompass whatever model and mounting format being used by the players. Every base (or ship model) is considered to have a single imaginary centerpoint which will be occasionally referred to. Some of the reference templates are meant to be placed at specific locations, either against the side of the model or at the edge of its base. The game chart instruction sheet will outline which is required for a given template.

Fig. 3 - Rake Zones (shaded in blue).

Rake Zones - A feature which is not physically marked on the base is the rake zone. The rake zone is an invisible boundary area off the front and rear of a ship which defines when an enemy vessels receives a rake bonus for cannon fire. As a general rule, a ship should avoid letting enemy ships sail within its rake zone. The rake zone runs diagonally across the corners of a ship's base, forming a roughly 55° arc.

Measuring Distances - When measuring distances for movement, players will always measure from the front edge of a ship's base, or from the front edge of the model. When measuring for checking cannon fire ranges, players measure from the main mast of their ship model to the main mast of the targeted enemy ship. For purposes of weapon ranging, the ship's bases are not considered.

« 1.3 Equipment
Naval wargaming is more technically demanding than some other forms of miniature wargaming, and a few extra tools are used for game play. The standard gaming equipment of tape measures, six-sided dice, calculator and pens/pencils will be needed. Beginning players should remember that two dice are called "dice" but that one is only called a "die." Players will also need to download both sides of the Admiralty combat chart as well as the ship log and move templates. Cutting out the templates and mounting them on thin cardboard will give them extra strength. A clipboard is also valuable for writing on the ship logs.

Combat Charts - There is a front and back side to the combat chart. Both sides are needed for game play, so players should make sure to print out both of them.

Move Templates - To help players understand turning capabilities, movement in relation to wind direction and firing arc of their ship, we have included a sheet of game templates. A link to the template page itself is located on the main Admiralty home page and the template sheet includes detailed instructions for use.

Ship Logs: Each vessel used in combat will need to have an entry in one of the ship logs. These entries are used to track events on board each of the ships. The information shown in the Ship Values listings on the Admiralty home page should cover everything needed to fill out the ship logs for those vessels.

« 1.4 Turn Sequence
Once all players have gone through the set-up page, placed their ships and arranged their formations, game play is ready to begin. Each turn is split into phases, and some phases are split into steps. At right is an outline of the turn sequence and its basic steps. Below are more detailed outlines of each phase.

1) Movement
a) Roll for active M hits
b) Roll for fire danger (Locked with inferno)
c) Downwind player move
d) Upwind player move
2) Command 1
a) Mobilize extra boarding parties
b) Send signals
3) Firing
a) Roll for active I hits
b) Roll for active F hits
c) Conduct cannon fire
d) Roll for fire danger (normal/full sail)
4) Command 2
a) Change speed setting (set sail)
b) Check for surrender
5) Boarding
a) Roll for boarding attempt
b) Conduct boarding action
6) Repair
a) Roll for active M hits – The first step in each movement phase is to roll on the critical hit table for all Mast hits. Commanding players roll for their own ships and immediately apply all results before proceeding.
b) Roll for fire danger – Roll a fire danger (D) check for any ship which is currently Locked (L) with any vessels that have active Infernos burning on board (roll once for each inferno).
c) Downwind player move – The player which has ships furthest downwind (in the lee position) moves first. In most cases this will be fairly obvious. In closer cases, the initial definition of "furthest downwind" can be used for a tie breaker.
d) Upwind player move – The player which does not have ships furthest downwind moves second. In both cases, a player must move all of his ships which have available movement. The only way to normally stop a ship in this game (outside of destroying its rigging) is to cut its sails to the stop position and anchor.
Command 1
a) Mobilize Boarding Parties – Both players declare and record all boarding dice additions and the resulting gun dice losses.
b) Send signals – Both players may attempt to send maneuver signals and basic instructions to other players.
a) Roll for active I hits – The first step in each firing phase is to roll on the critical hit table for all active Infernos. Commanding players roll for their own ships and immediately apply all results before proceeding.
b) Roll for active F hits – Roll on the critical hit table for all active Fires. Commanding players roll for their own ships and immediately apply all results before proceeding.
c) Conduct cannon fire – All cannon fire is considered simultaneous. Players may fire any of their ships which can bear on targets. See Section 4 : Firing for more about conducting cannon fire.
d) Roll for fire danger – Roll Fire Danger checks for any ships which fired their guns while a) Unrepaired B hits existed on the same side of the ship, b) speed was set to normal or full. All results are immediately added to the respective vessel's critical hit boxes.
Command 2
a) Change speed setting – Both players attempt to change the speed settings for their ships.
b) Check for Surrender – Ships which are immobilized and without guns must check proximity of friendly and enemy vessels to see if they surrender.

« 1.5 Glossary
The rules text has been kept as plain as possible for those unfamiliar with naval terminology. Some words are in such broad usage however, that they are inevitably used. Below is a short list of definitions for those that would likely show up.

Bow – The front end of a ship
Broadside – When all the guns on one side of a ship fire at the same time.
Hull – The main body of a ship, built out of heavy wooden timbers.
Lee – Downwind. The lee side of a ship is that which is downwind, and a fleet in a lee position is downwind from their enemy.
Port – The left side of a ship
Rake – Firing down the length of a ship from a position off of its bow or stern.
Rigging – The part of a ship which supports and operates the sails.
Starboard – The right side of a ship
Stern – The back end of a ship
Weather – Upwind, opposite of lee. The weather side of a ship is that which is facing into the wind. A fleet in a weather position is upwind from their enemy.

« 2.0 Movement
Ship models are moved on flat, open surfaces without use of grids. All movement is conducted in millimeters and available speed is controlled by several factors including ship type, wind speed and sail selection. According to these factors, each ship is allotted a specific movement allowance for the turn. Commanding players may move their ships in any direction of their choosing, including those directions which are not advisable. The rules do not prevent players from making mistakes, and so a bit of practice may be needed in order to help players make the best movement decisions. Players should keep in mind that naval battles of this time were decided in part by the side which made the least number of maneuver errors. Admiralty tries to reflect this reality.

« 2.1 Moving Straight
The first step in moving a ship is to confirm it is not pointed too far into the wind. This can usually be achieved with a quick visual check, but vessel's which look like they are too close to the wind (I.E. - aiming too far toward the wind's direction) should be checked using the wind gage template. The template will confirm according to crew grade whether a vessel has wind in its sails and can therefore use its sail settings for regular movement. If a ship does not qualify for regular movement because it is aiming too far into the wind and it is not in the middle of tacking (turning through the wind) refer to the In Irons special rule below.

To move a ship, refer to its log and confirm its speed and current sail setting. The Speed box on the log is a description of that vessel's general speed rating, such as "Heavy Slow" or "Light Fast." The current sail setting is a general description such as Battle, Normal or Stop. Obviously in the case of a "Stop" or "Anchored" sail setting, a vessel will not move and there is no need to calculate available movement for the turn.

Once you know the current sail setting, refer to the Movement table on the combat chart. Cross reference the ship's speed rating with the current wind speed to find out that vessel's movement allowance in millimeters using the default Battle sail setting. A ship using the Normal sail setting has a movement allowance for the turn that is double the number shown for Battle Sail. Note that a vessel's available movement may be modified by the number of sail hits it has has suffered. See section 4.4 for more about sail hit effects.

Once the final movement allowance for a ship is confirmed, it must be moved that distance in millimeters. It may not move more or less than that amount unless the moving player wishes to slow the vessel down by rolling for speed reduction on the Move Actions table (see Move Actions below). If a vessel or obstacle is in the path of the moving ship and it cannot slow down, it must turn to prevent a collision.

Tacking has advantages over wearing, mainly because it takes less time to resume movement on the new heading. However, if a ship makes a mistake while tacking, it can end up stuck with its bow pointing into the wind – a very bad way to be when there are enemy ships loitering in the area. So a ship never turns upwind and stays that way on purpose. Its goal is to get up some speed and then turn as quickly as possible so that it ends its turn with the wind on the other side of the ship.

« 2.2 Turning
There are two basic ways to turn a ship; turn downwind or turn upwind. Turning downwind is called wearing and is the easiest way to turn. Turning upwind is called tacking and it is the most difficult way to turn. In order to turn a ship in Admiralty, you will use the Turn Gage that is included on the templates sheet. The turn gage restricts how tightly a vessel can turn while also showing the rate at which its movement is consumed during the turning maneuver.

Players may not pre-measure, re-measure or otherwise "take back" any turning maneuvers they conduct or even begin to conduct with their ships. Once a turn gage is laid down and a player begins moving his ship, he must complete the maneuver. If a player begins making a turn and realizes that the ship's alignment is not correct in relation to other ships ahead or behind (usually because of starting the turn too early or too late) nothing can be done about it at that point. The imperfect move must be completed and any resulting errors in alignment resolved on later movement turns. Note that turning a ship will change its orientation to the wind, which must be carefully watched. A ship may not change its sail setting whilst it is turning.

Turning Downwind - For wearing (turning downwind) place the Turning Gage with the zero pointer alongside the center edge of the ship's stand and move the stand to the same pointer position on the 40mm line which corresponds to the ship's current speed in millimeters. The ship will use 40mm of its available movement in order to make this one turn. Ships can make any number of these turns in a movement step so long as they do not exceed their available movement limit. Note that all wearing "speed lines" are marked as a W1, W2 or W3.

Turning Upwind - For tacking (turning upwind) place the turn gage with the zero pointer alongside the center edge of the ship's stand and move the stand to the same pointer position on the 40mm "T" line. The ship will use 40mm of its available movement in order to make this one turn. The ship can make any number of these turns in a movement step so long as they do not exceed their available movement limit.

At the precise point during a turn upwind that a ship's bow is pointed directly into the wind, the moving player must pass a die roll test on the Move Actions table. Depending on wind speed (and corresponding sea conditions) the maneuver may be considered moderate or hard on the difficulty scale. If the player passes the test, the ship may continue with its tacking maneuver (ships may use consecutive move turns in order to tack completely). If the ship does not pass the test, it is considered In Irons. Refer to the special rules section for ships in irons.

Vessels size 1/2 and smaller will tack by rotating in place instead of using the turn gage. Ships making sternway may also use the Tacking turn line.

Sail Settings

The sail setting in the game broadly corresponds to sail setting used in real life. Battle sail is for ships with topsails and gallants set. Normal sail corresponds to ships with all of their normal square sails set to varying degrees - basically whatever is necessary to make best speed in the current wind conditions. Ships under normal sail are more subject to rigging damage because of the stress imposed by the increased loads and wind pressure. Masts under normal sail are enduring a tremendous amount of stress and can fail if even slightly damaged. Realistically however, the main reason for making battle sail was to release as much of the crew as possible for servicing the guns and to offer the best combination of maneuverability and stability in a seaway.
« 2.3 Move Actions
During the course of moving, a player may wish for their ship to maneuver or act in a way that depends on crew skill. A vessel attempting one of these Move Actions must pass a die roll test based on the difficulty of the action and the grade of the crew. Move actions can be as simple as anchoring the ship, or as complicated as making sternway (moving the ship backwards under sail).

To attempt a move action, cross index the action's difficulty level with the moving vessel's crew grade and roll one six sided die. The die result must be equal to or higher than the number indexed for that crew and difficulty level. Failure of the test means that the attempted action may not be executed. The ship's current movement allowance remains unchanged but it may not attempt any further move actions until next turn. A vessel may attempt and execute only one move action during any one movement step. Below is a list of available move actions and their effect:

Stop – Stopping the ship is considered an easy operation. It means that the sail setting has been reduced to such a level that the vessel is no longer making headway and may not turn except by rotating at anchor. A vessel which changes its speed setting to stop when it was under normal sail on the previous turn, will continue to move half of its normal sail movement rate before it is considered completely stopped (due to momentum that carries the ship forward even after the sails are brought in). Note that in advanced rules, stopped ships which do not anchor may be subject to drifting effects.

Reduce Speed - A vessel wishing to fine-tune its movement while under sail may attempt to do so with a speed reduction. Greater speed reductions require better crews and/or more time (I.E. - more turns spent in the attempt). Speed reductions up to 20% are considered easy. Speed reductions up to 60% are of moderate difficulty and speed reductions up to 100% are considered hard. Successful speed reduction actions should be marked on the ship's log as the specific reduction percentage the player wants to use - within the limits of the value successfully rolled. A player does not have to use the maximum amount rolled for. If for example, he successfully rolls for a speed reduction up to 60%, he may record any reduction between 1% and 60%, although once recorded, the selected reduction setting may not be changed to another value without rolling another move action test. And of course most people will not attempt a more difficult reduction unless they plan to use a substantial portion of it.

Once achieved, a specific speed reduction may be used on future consecutive turns so long as the reduction amount is not changed or abandoned (I.E. - Once achieved, a player does not need to roll every turn for that ship to re-attain the same speed reduction). If however, the ship changes sail setting or even attempts to employ a different reduction value, the previous reduction status is lost. No die roll is necessary in order to abandon a previously attained speed reduction, the player simply announces at any point during movement that the existing reduction is being abandoned.

If in the process of rolling for a 60% or 100% speed reduction, a player incidentally rolls a result that would pass the test for a lesser speed reduction, the player may accept and use that lesser speed reduction for the vessel in question. A speed reduction roll only applies to the vessel being rolled for and none others.

Anchoring – A vessel may drop anchor, raise anchor or cut its cables (sever the lines going down to a dropped anchor). To do so it must be currently stopped and must pass an Easy test rating. Each of the anchoring actions takes place as follows:
Anchoring — A vessel intending to drop anchor must be completely stopped. If it passes the move action test for anchoring, it may mark Anchored in the sail settings box on the ship log. Anchored ships may not move and gain a bonus modifier on the Gun Dice table. Anchored ships are also immune to any drifting effects caused by currents or wind.

Raising Anchor — A vessel which is currently anchored may raise anchor, which will allow it to change sail setting to Normal or Battle and begin moving. If it passes the move action test for raising anchor, the ship must wait 15 turns before the anchor is considered fully raised, at which point the player may change the sail setting box status from Anchored to Stopped. Ships raising anchor may not mobilize gun crews and a vessel's active anchor raising action is immediately cancelled if it receives any anchor hits or becomes locked with any other ship. It is not common for a ship to raise anchor in the normal fashion under combat conditions, they will instead usually cut their cables and rely on spare anchors later.

Cutting Cables — A vessel which is currently anchored may cut the cables which connect the ship to the lowered anchor down on the sea floor. This is an extreme measure, because both the anchor and the cable itself (which can be many hundreds of feet long) are extremely expensive and hard to replace items. Still, under some combat conditions ships may not have time to raise anchor the normal way and will instead "Cut their cables" and get moving.

If a ship passes the move action test for cutting cables, it may change the sail setting box status from Anchored to Stopped. This allows the commanding player to attempt a change of sail setting to Normal or Battle on the following Change Speed step.

Rotate at Anchor – A vessel which is currently anchored may actually rotate in position by rigging cable "springs" to the existing anchoring system. This is usually done if an enemy ship is nearby and the anchored ship needs to keep its broadside guns facing their target. If a ship passes the move action test to rotate at anchor, it may rotate on its centerpoint up to 45° for that move step. Players may also use the "T" line on the turning gage as a reference angle for maximum rotation. Rotating at anchor is not an open ended action like speed reduction, attempts made on consecutive turns must be rolled for independently.

Turning upwind (tacking) – A ship attempting to tack must roll a move action test at the moment it is pointed directly into the wind. If it passes the test, it may continue with its sharp tacking turns until it is on its new course with wind in its sail. If it fails the test, it is considered to have "Missed Stays" and will be stuck facing into the wind. Ships that miss stays must immediately stop their tacking move and may not attempt any further movement until the next movement phase. At that point the stationary ship must follow the In Irons special rule below.

Change Sail Setting – The ability of a crew to make major changes in sail settings in Admiralty is directly affected by the combat conditions surrounding the ship. Even an D rated crew might perform reasonably well in calm, peacetime waters, but will not behave that way in the presence of the enemy. Hence the difficulties in changing major speed setting during the game.

For game play, a ship attempting to change from Normal Sail setting to Battle Sail setting is considered to be making a moderately difficult move action. Changing the other way: from Battle Sail to Normal Sail is more difficult under combat conditions and is considered a hard move action. If a vessel passes the action test die roll to change between either speed setting, simply change the entry in the Sail Settings box on that ship's log. If the move action roll fails, the ship retains its previous sail setting for the turn. The player may attempt to change settings next turn, and there are no limits on the number of consecutive turns that a player may attempt to change sail settings.

Make Sternway – This is one of the more difficult move actions and should only be attempted by an experienced crew. Players which successfully pass the move action test for making sternway may move the ship backwards up to 20% of their normal sail move rating for the current wind speed, up to a limit of 40mm movement (no ship may make sternway faster than 40mm under any conditions). This includes ships under battle sail, so a ship under battle sail making sternway may move backwards at 20% of their normal sail rate, not 20% of their battle sail rate. Ships making sternway must have wind in their sails, they may not be in irons or otherwise facing into the wind, and they may not have the wind blowing from within their stern rake zone (I.E. - from directly behind the ship). A vessel making sternway may use up to one "T" turning gage step (or "W" turn lines if they wish) per movement phase. A vessel which attempts to make sternway and fails the move action test is considered stopped, which should be marked in the ship's Sail Setting log.

Players do not need to mark the sternway movement condition in the Sail Setting log unless they intend to move that way for more than one turn. Sternway is an open ended move action like speed reduction, once achieved the moving ship may continue moving that way on consecutive turns without having to roll further move actions tests for it. The same rules of abandonment and change that apply to speed reduction also applies to making sternway. Not that in the advanced rules below, poor grade crews may damage the ship if they attempt to make sternway.

« 2.4 Collisions
If a ship moves within 15mm of another vessel during its movement, both must roll on the Collision table to check for hits and damage. Begin by establishing whether the combined courses of the two ships are Collision or Other, and at what point the affected areas of the ships are most in danger of colliding. Each player then rolls one six sided die and modifies the roll result with all applicable modifiers. Cross index the modified number with the portion of the ship most affected – bow, side or stern – and apply the results shown.

The collision check should always be made at: (a) The point during the active ship's entire movement that it comes closest to the other vessel, or (b) The point during the active ship's movement that both vessels are at maximum engagement. In either case, the collision check will often not occur at the moment the ships approach within 15mm, but the moment at which they are most in danger of collision and fouling for the entire course of that move. This last item is an important one, as many vessels should be allowed to "come alongside" other ships before checking for collisions – if such a maneuver is their intent – rather than checking for collision and locking at the very first moment they approach within 15mm.

Combined Courses – There are two basic categories of courses: collision and other. A collision course is one in which the ships are clearly in danger of striking each other or becoming locked due to fouling. Other courses are usually when ships are travelling parallel to each other or passing one another. The combat chart includes a basic outline of Collision Course figures showing the general intent of the two main categories.

Affected Areas – Deciding the affected portion of a ship will usually be easy. If two vessels have come alongside each other, then each will use the side column. If a vessel is being passed astern, it will use the stern column while the ship passing it will use the side column. If a vessel is headed straight for the side of another ship, it will use the bow column while the other vessel uses the side column.

As noted above, players should keep in mind the portions of the ship most at risk at the mostly like point of collision. For example, if two ships are passing each other in opposite directions (collision course) and their sides are parallel to each other, they would check for collision when they are fully abreast of each other (the point of maximum engagement) not at the moment their bows come within 10mm.

« 2.6 Special Rules
In Irons – A ship facing into the wind while under sail is considered to be "In Irons" and is currently out of control. This can be caused if a ship attempted to tack and "missed stays" or it can be caused if a vessel unwisely sailed too close to the wind and ended up losing wind power. A ship in irons must drift in the direction of the wind 10% of its current available movement for whatever sail setting is currently active. The ship may not turn or change heading (the direction the bow points). If the ship is under normal sail and the wind is within the ship's bow rake arc, it must roll one six sided die on the first turn it is blown backwards, suffering a Mast hit on a roll result of 6. The resulting M hit roll on the critical hit table must apply all rigging damage but will ignore any XX repair results.

A ship may escape from this condition by successfully rolling a test as a Hard move action. If successful, the ship may use one "T" turning gage step, which should be used to move in a direction most likely to get wind back in its sails again as quickly as possible (usually going backwards). Each passed test only allows a single move step for that turn, so escaping from irons may take numerous turns as the ship slowly inches its way out of the difficult situation. Ships which turn while moving backwards out of being in irons must check for possible rudder damage in the same way as vessels making sternway.

Emergency Battle Sail – Ships under normal sail which suffer more than 33% sail hits may declare an emergency change to battle sail setting during the Change Speed step. Making this change should be marked in the Sail Setting log, as a ship which makes such a change may not use the normal sail setting again during the course of the game. No move action test is necessary to conduct an emergency battle sail change.

« 2.7 Advanced Movement Rules
Advanced rules are not required for general game play, and they may slow the game down. But experienced players already familiar with the rules may enjoy these ideas and the historical feel they help to create.

Sails Aback – If a vessel with normal sail setting turns into the wind and is not tacking, its remaining movement for the turn is immediately halved. This represents the braking action of the sails when they go "aback" and slow the ship. For example, a ship which began its move with 160mm of movement and had already consumed 80mm of movement, it would have only 40mm of movement remaining.

A second optional step to the sails aback rule, is that any vessel under normal sail conducting the above movement must immediately roll once on the Mast Hit table for rigging damage, and must also roll immediately for each existing Mast hit.

Rudder Damage – If a D or F rated crew attempts to make sternway, there is a possibility that they will damage the ship's rudder. At the moment the ship attempts to move backwards, roll one six sided die; for a D rated crew, they will suffer one "R" hit on a die result of 6; for an F rated crew, they will suffer one "R" hit on a die result of 5 or 6.

« 3.0 Command
During the command phase, commanding players may attempt to execute a range of standing orders and settings. Unless otherwise stated, these actions may only take place or be ordered during this phase.

« 3.1 Changing Speed
Ships may attempt to change their current sail setting during the second command phase. To do so the commanding player refers to the Move Actions table and rolls the appropriate die roll test for that change attempt. The ship may attempt change its sail setting to: Stop, Anchor, Battle or Normal.

Stop — Used in preparation for anchoring or to retain ability to quickly get back underway. If a vessel used normal sail on the turn immediately preceding a stop change, the vessel in question will continue moving half of its previous movement allowance (call headway). Only then will be be completely stopped. Vessels with headway may still attempt to anchor during the same movement step once they have come to a complete stop. In advanced rules stopped ships which don't anchor will drift.
Anchor — The ship is stopped with at least two anchors securing it to the sea floor. Offers stability, but no mobility.
Battle Sail — Standard for combat. Gives some speed while preventing excessive stress to rigging. Allows full manning of guns.
Normal Sail — Standard non-combat, full rigged movement. Vulnerable to rigging damage in combat.

« 3.2 Signals
Because Admiralty re-creates the core combat environment of a naval battle, the ability to send signals and messages to other players and their ships has been severely limited. As a rule, once a battle started the ability to send signals – which was an imperfect process to begin with – became almost impossible. For game play, messages are not sent from one player to another. Instead, a player posts a message on his flagship's ship log, and other players must pass a die roll test to be allowed to read it. A failed die roll indicates that player either did not see the message, or saw the signal flags and could not read them.

To post a signal, a player writes a five or ten word message on the adhesive side of a small "post it" style message tablet. The message may not be shown to other players and must be either one through five words long, or six through ten words long. A number counts as a word, and run-on words and word/number combinations are not allowed. If a commander manages to artfully avoid the obvious intent of these rules, his fellow players should feel free to place a syllable limit on each message. Once a message is completed, it is pasted to that signalling vessel's ship log. Most players post it onto the back of the log page to keep it out of the way.

To read another ship's signal, a player consults the Signals table on the combat chart. Cross reference the message length with the line of sight condition to establish the modified die roll needed in order to read the message. Modify the die roll value using the die roll modifiers which are defined below.

The player attempting to read another commander's signalling is referred to as the reading commander. The player issuing a signal is referred to as the signalling commander. A clear line of sight must pass from the centerpoint of the reading ship to the centerpoint of the signalling ship without any other ships or landmasses intervening.

Signal Roll Modifiers:
Each in combat — A player suffers a minus one to his reading roll if his own ship is currently in combat and an additional minus one if the signalling ship is in combat. Combat in this case is defined as firing or being fired upon. So if the signalling ship is in combat but the reading ship is not, the reading player will suffer a minus one. If both are in combat, the reading ship will suffer a minus two.
Each 20 S hits — Subtract one point from the reading die roll for each 20 S hits that have been suffered by the signalling ship.

« 3.3 Mobilize Boarding Parties
A player may add to the number of boarding dice which can be used during the Boarding phase by temporarily deactivating gun dice. One boarding die is gained for each five gun dice that are deactivated. Do not cross out mobilized gun dice values. Instead, mark an MG at the bottom center of the Gun Dice box, followed by the number of gun dice deactivated. The MG entry applies to both sides of the ship, so for example a vessel with a 505 gun dice rating can only mobilize a total of two additional boarding dice, not two dice for each side of the ship .

Because gun crews are mobilized in groups of five gun dice, the MG values should read MG5, MG10, etc. Their function is identical to the B hits, which temporarily suppress gun dice until repaired. In this case, the gun dice remain suppressed while the boarding dice are being used. If boarding dice are lost during the boarding action (due to lost rounds) the gun dice may be permanently lost and are then crossed out, with those contributed by the suppressed gun dice being considered last to be lost. Note that the number of mobilized gun crews (and hence the dice they contribute) may shrink in following turns as the ship suffers gun hits.

« 3.4 Surrendering
Any ship which has become immobile with all of its gun knocked out may end up surrendering if enemy ships are too close, especially if friendly ships are too far away. If during the Post and Read Signals step of the game, any ship is immobilized with all guns destroyed, consult the Surrender table on the combat chart. Start on the line matching the crew grade of the ship and check if enemy ships are within the distance noted at far right, in the proximity column. This distance is the Enemy Proximity. If any enemy ships are within that distance, check to see if all friendly ships are equal to or further away than the distance shown on the left side of the proximity column. If no friendly ships are in the vicinity, the ship in question will surrender.

Example: A disabled, immobilized ship with a crew grade of C has at least one enemy ship within 60mm. All friendly ships are 140mm away or further, and so the disabled ship will surrender. If any friendly ships were within 140mm, the ship in question would not surrender. If friendly ships were all more than 140mm away and all enemy ships were more than 60mm away, the ship also would not surrender.

« 3.5 Advanced Signalling Rules
Advanced rules are not required for general game play, and they may slow game play. But experienced players already familiar with the rules may enjoy these ideas and the historical feel they help to create.

Repeating Frigates – Any frigates within line of sight of a fleet's flagship will immediately post a copy of the flagship's message into their own ship logs. This is done merely by posting additional notes to the frigate logs with the flagship's name on it – it is not necessary to write new copies of the original message. Other fleet commanders who can see the frigate more easily than the fleet flagship, may use the more favorable signal table conditions to read the original message via their line of sight conditions with the frigate. Repeating frigates may not be firing at enemy ships while acting in this capacity, and they may not be within 20cm of any enemy vessels.

« 4.0 Cannon Fire Sequence
A ship's guns are fired by declaring an enemy ship within that vessel's arc-of-fire as a target (see 4.2 Targeting below). Cannon fire is then conducted by rolling a number of six-sided dice based on the gun dice numbers shown on the ship log. The gun dice numbers correspond to the number of light, medium and heavy cannons available on each side of the vessel. Note that within a gun dice sequence, each digit is treated individually. For example, a gun dice value of 609 is not six-hundred and nine, it is six, zero and nine, indicating that vessel has six light gun dice, no medium gun dice and nine heavy gun dice available for use on each side. In some cases the last heavy value is followed by a fourth number which reflects the number of heavy carronade guns which may be added to the last heavy gun value at close range. Otherwise, all cannons may be fired at all three of the available gun ranges.

Now choose one of the gun types to fire. Most players start with their heaviest guns and work down. Whatever size is chosen, the initial number of gun dice for that size may be modified by the Dice Quantity Modifiers in the Gun Dice table. Those modifiers change the number of gun dice to be thrown. On the same table you will also check for the hit roll values, which are the numbers that actually have to be rolled on each gun die for a hit to occur.

Next, begin at the Start Line on the Hit Table and modify it up or down according to the Line Modifiers – if any apply. The maximum cannon fire line is +2 and the minimum is -2. A certain portion of the dice to be rolled will apply to the Hull Target column, and the remainder will apply to the Rigging Target column. See Targeting below for more information about the numbers of dice that can be used for each of the two target types.

Once the quantity of gun dice and the hit table line are established, the dice are rolled. All hit results cause the corresponding sets of damage hits shown for that line and target type. Hull targeted dice only inflict damage hits shown in the Hull Target column and rigging targeted dice only inflict damage shown in the Rigging Target column. Record the resulting hits – if any – on the ship log and proceed to the next gun size.

General Cannon Fire Rules – Different ships firing onto the same target with identical modifiers may group their dice into one roll. Each group of guns or "battery" may only fire once each turn. All fire conducted during a turn is considered to be simultaneous. Damage inflicted during the course of the Cannon Fire step only becomes effective at the end of the step when all ships have had their opportunity to fire. Passing fire effects also become active at this time (see Passing Fire below). All gun hit fractions are rounded down.

Multiple 6 Results – If during the course of rolling his gun dice a player rolls more than one natural six (showing six on the die, not a modified six), each extra six rolled will immediately result in a CR hit and a corresponding roll for additional damage on the CR line of the Critical Hit table. For example, if a player rolls nine gun dice and the results are 2,2,3,4,4,5,6,6,6, the player is considered to have rolled two "extra" sixes and inflicts two CR hits on the enemy ship in addition to any other damage suffered. Note that CR hits are modified by the gun size which inflicted the original damage.

General Firing Example 1: A 100-gun ship of the line with a B grade crew and a gun dice profile of 609 is going to fire her nine heavy guns at a target that is 80mm away under normal sail. Because this is in the close range bracket, there are no reductions due to range, and her B rating allows die rolls of 5 or 6 to score hits at close range. Because the heavy guns are being fired at a target that has normal sails, the hull targeted dice used the +1 line and the rigging targeted dice use the +2 line of the Hit Table. If the target ship were under battle sails, all dice would use the +1 line on the Hit Table.

General Firing Example 2: A 74-gun ship of the line with an F grade crew and a gun dice profile of 022 is going to use her two medium gun dice against a target that is 320mm away under battle sail. Because this is in the medium range bracket, the number of gun dice is halved to one, and her F rating allows only die roll pairs of 6 to score hits (shown as "12" on the combat chart table). Because of this, the player does not roll because a minimum of two dice would be needed in order to have any possibility of scoring a hit.

« 4.1 Targeting

Fig. 1 – Arc of Fire Targets.

Ship A represents a vessel which is just moving out of the arc of fire. Because part of its stern still lies within the arc, it may be fired at. Ship B is entirely within the arc and may be fired at. The centerpoint of ship C lies just within the arc, and so it may be fired at. The centerpoint of ship D lies just outside of the arc, and so it may not be fired at because the ships is only just moving into the arc of fire and does not yet represent a broad enough target.
Arcs of fire – A ship may only fire its cannon at targets that are within limited arcs-of-fire. These arcs are anchored off the port and starboard sides of the ship, and their breadth or "sweep" is different depending on the time period of the battle. Early in the period covered by Admiralty, the average arc-of-fire was about 10°. By the middle of the period most ships had been converted to allow their guns a 45° arc-of-fire. See the Ship Values for more information about arcs-of-fire for individual fleets.

Ships which are moving into an arc of fire may only be fired upon if their centerpoint lies within the boundary of the arc. Ships which are entirely within an arc of fire may always be fired upon, assuming they are within range. Ships which are moving out of an arc of fire may be fired upon if any portion of the model lies within the arc. See Figure 1 at right. Note that because all game movement is conducted in steps, the actual ship models will all be stationary at the time that firing is resolved. However, the ships will often represent objects which are moving in relation to each other. Because of this, the rules will discuss abstract ideas, like ships which are considered to be moving, as in "moving into an arc of fire" even though both models are setting still at the time the observation and firing are done. Whether a ship is considered to be motionless for game purposes is decided by its movement (or lack thereof) from the previous turn.

Multiple Targets – In any case where numerous enemy ships are within a vessel's arc of fire, the firing ship will target the enemy which is in the closest range bracket and closest to the attacker's line of fire. Such a ship is referred to as the primary target. An exception to this is the case of a pre-existing target. If the ship fired upon last turn by a battery is still within the arc of fire but is no longer the primary target, the firing player may choose either the new primary target or the pre-existing target. If two enemy ships are both within the same range bracket and are also the same distance from the line of fire, either ship may be targeted.
Example: A vessel which is in a closer range bracket than three other vessels, but further away from the line of fire will still be the primary target. If three vessels are all within the same range bracket but are individually at different ranges, the vessel closest to the firing ship's line of fire will be the primary target. All of these situations are subject to the pre-existing target option.

Fig. 2 – Valid Passing Fire

The green ship may conduct passing fire against the red ship because the red ship passed through more than half of the green ship's arc of fire.
Passing Fire – During the movement step, a player may declare any of his ships as conducting passing fire as enemy vessels pass through his own vessel's arc of fire. Passing fire may only be conducted under special circumstances, and it is designed to prevent viable targets from slipping out of a ship's arc of fire in conditions which normally would have resulted in a vessel firing or taking fire. Players should keep this last note in mind during the game, as it is nearly impossible to create rulings to cover every eventuality. In the case of unusual circumstances the general intent of the rules must be kept in mind.

Passing fire is considered to be simultaneous to all firing which occurs during the Fire phase, and damage inflicted as a result of passing fire only becomes effective at the time all other damage for the turn becomes effective at the conclusion of the Conduct Cannon Fire step.

In order to conduct passing fire, the player in control of the firing vessel must declare that he will do passing fire either as he moves his ship past an intended target, or as the enemy player moves a ship which is a viable target. All passing fire must be declared while a vessel is being moved. If a player is allowed to move his ship past an enemy vessel and take his hand off the model or its base without anyone calling "passing fire" against it, no passing fire may be done on that vessel. By the same token, if a player moves a ship without calling passing fire, none may be conducted by that ship.

Passing fire may only be conducted against a vessel which (a) passes through more than half of a firing ship's arc of fire or (b) presents a raking fire target. In order for (a) to occur, the target vessel's centerpoint must have passed the firing vessels line of fire. See Figures 1 and 2 at right. In order for (b) to occur, the target vessel must present a raking target at any point during the move. Passing fire must be conducted using all the weapons on the embattled side of the ship in question. Vessels which conduct passing fire during the movement phase may not fire again during the turn using the side or sides of the ship which fired.
Fig. 3 – Invalid Passing Fire

The green ship may not conduct passing fire against the red ship because the red ship moved through less than half of the green ship's arc of fire.

Target Types – When rolling for cannon fire, the dice themselves are used to define the mix between hull targeted guns and rigging targeted guns. Players should use two different colors of dice for the two target types, but should still roll the gun dice all at once, with one color assigned to hull hits and the other color assigned to rigging hits.

The ratio of dice used is decided according to the range and the national doctrine of a vessel's parent fleet. As a general rule, the gun dice mix for guns fired at long and medium range should follow a 66/33 mix. A ship from a fleet whose national doctrine is to fire at an enemy's hull should consider two-thirds of the dice rolled as counting toward the Hull Target column and one-third toward the Rigging Target column, with a general bias toward the dominant type. Fleets whose doctrine was firing at an enemy's rigging should consider two-thirds of their gun dice as being for Rigging Targeted fire and one-third for Hull Targeted fire. Hence, a French ship firing only two gun dice of a certain size at medium or long range will likely fire both of them as rigging targeted, but if rolling three dice will fire two at the rigging and one at the hull.

An interesting option for medium and long range fire is to mix the two dice colors into a can and blindly draw the desired number for each firing. Adjusting the ratios of dice inside the can could randomly show national differences while allowing unpredictable fluctuations in targeting. This would completely randomize hull/rigging targeting, and allows an interesting variety of options.

For close range firing players can choose among several possibilities, but in general the amount of heavy gun dice assigned to hull targets should be higher. Medium and light guns may be more selective about where they aim. Below are outlined several possible methods of deciding close range dice mix. Players should decide in advance which method will be used throughout a game, or roll to randomly decide which method to use before the game starts.

Close Range Options:
Battery Targeting (recommended) – Heavy cannon are always hull targeted, medium and light cannon may fire any combination of their guns as hull or rigging targeted.
Basic Targeting – All but one of the gun dice for each type are hull targeted.
Advanced Basic Targeting – When firing five dice or less, all may be hulled targeted. When firing six dice or more, one must be rigging targeted.

« 4.2 Modifiers
All gun dice and cannon fire table modifiers are cumulative.

Dice Quantity Modifiers
Stern Rake – Double the number of dice if the center-point of the firing ship lies within the stern zone of the target vessel. Note that all gun hits which are caused by a bow or stern rake must be evenly split between the two sides of a ship.
Bow Rake – Add one-half (50%) to the number of dice if the center-point of the firing ship lies within the bow zone of the target vessel.
Prepared Broadside – Add one-half (50%) to the number of dice if the firing vessel is firing a prepared broadside. Prepared broadsides must be declared at the start of the game and may only be used at half of close range (50mm) or less. Once a prepared broadside has been used, the firing ship may only use normal firing rules thereafter. A ship with prepared broadsides wishing to fire at longer range must first spend one full fire turn "clearing" the prepared broadside, after which they may fire normally. The prepared broadside is lost and may not be reacquired for the rest of the game.
Anchored – Add one-quarter (25%) to the number of dice if the firing vessel is anchored.
Medium Range – Halve the number of dice if the target lies within the medium range bracket.
Long Range – Quarter the number of dice if the target lies within the long range bracket.
Wind Speed 4 – Halve the number of dice if current wind speed has a "4" rating.
Wind Speed 5 – Quarter the number of dice if the current wind speed has a "5" rating.

Line Modifiers
Weak Hull – Go up one line on the fire table for hull-targeted gun dice fired against a vessel with a weak hull.
Stout Hull – Drop one line down on the fire table for hull-targeted gun dice fired against a vessel with a stout hull.
Heavy Firing – Go up one line on the fire table if the gun dice being rolled are for heavy guns.
Light Firing – Drop one line down on the fire table if the gun dice being rolled are for light guns.
Rigging Target vs Normal – Go up one line on the fire table for rigging-targeted gun dice fired against a vessel using normal sail setting.

« 4.3 Damage Hits
During the course of the game a ship can suffer damage that slowly reduces it ability to fight. In order to keep the game moving, we have chosen not to concern ourselves with damage and hits that do not dramatically affect the operation of the ship. Our main concerns are basic: Are the guns still firing, can the ship still move, will it sink soon? Those primitive concerns and others like them are the concerns of the moment for Admiralty.

There are two basic types of damage in the game: static and active. Static damage happens once and doesn't need to be bothered with any further. Active damage is damage that can somehow trigger additional damage, sometimes immediately, sometimes later in the game. In any case, active damage is usually dangerous in some way and will usually be a source of concern. The most common types of damage are suffered from the Hit Table. Less common types of damage are inflicted through the Critical Hits table. All types of damage inflicted should be recorded on the ship log under the name of the ship which has suffered the damage. A few damage types can be repaired, a function which is discussed more in Section 6 - Repairs.

Below is a master list of each damage type and its respective effects.

Damage Code Glossary
A Anchor Mark one A in the Critical Hits box of the ship log.
A ship with two or more anchor hits may not anchor during the game. If the anchor hits are sustained by a vessel already anchored the vessel may remain anchored, but if it cuts cables it is considered to have no replacement anchors and may not anchor again during the game.
B Blocked Gun Dice Mark a 1B at the bottom of the appropriate Gun Dice box for each B hit. For multiple B hits, change the number accordingly: 2B, 3B, etc.
Each set of B hits should be randomly located either on the port or starboard side of the ship, not both. B hits cause the temporary suppression of one gun die of each "B Point" on the corresponding side of that ship. As with any suppressed feature, suppressed gun dice may not be used until the B hits have been repaired.

Example: A ship with a Gun Dice value of 255 that has two B hits (2B) marked on its Starboard side, may only fire three medium and three heavy gun dice. It is effectively a 033 on that side of the ship until the blocked guns are cleared using repair die rolls.

The BD hit result is a related code which requires one or more immediate die rolls to test for B hits. The BD hit result is not recorded anywhere, it simply results in the immediate test for further damage.
C Carronade Reduce one of the carronades values (if any) shown in the Gun Dice box. Each C hit should be randomly located either on the port or starboard side of the ship, not both. If a target vessel does not have any carronade weapons, inflict one normal G hit instead.
CR Critical Hit Refer to the Critical Hit line of the Critical Hit table and roll one six sided die. Inflict the resulting damage codes and, if necessary, roll for their effects also. Note that the gun size modifiers from the Hit Table are also used for critical hit die rolls: A critical hit roll triggered by light guns will suffer a minus one (-1); A critical hit roll triggered by heavy guns will receive a plus one (+1).
CR2 Critical Hit 2 Refer to the Critical Hit 2 line of the Critical Hit table and roll one six sided die. Inflict the resulting damage codes and, if necessary, roll for their effects also. The CR2 line inflicts less common types of damage such as anchor, leader and pump hits.
D Fire Danger Immediately refer to the Fire Danger line on the Critical Hit table and roll one die, recording any fires that are started as a result.
E Explosion Immediately refer to the Explosion line on the Critical Hit table and roll one die, recording all damage that happens as a result. Keep the I hit which triggered the explosion and continue rolling each turn for additional explosions.

Any ships within 25mm of an exploding ship must roll on the Explosion hit line with a minus two (-2) modifier. Ships within 50mm of an exploding ship must roll on the Explosion line with a minus three (-3) modifier.
F Fire A small fire is burning on board. Mark an F in the Critical Hits box of the ship log. At the start of each Fire Phase, roll for each active F hit on the Fire line of the Critical Hit table and apply the results.
G Gun Hit Mark a number in the Gun Hits box of the ship log corresponding to the current total of gun hits on that side of the ship. G hits should be marked off on the embattled side of the ship, that is, the side of the ship facing the direction of the attacker. G hits coming from directly ahead or behind (I.E. - from raking fire) should be evenly split between the two sides of the ship. If all of the gun dice on the nearest side of the target ship have been destroyed, gun hits are then to be applied to those guns (if any) which are still intact on the other side of the target ship.
GD Gun Dice Randomly reduce one of the remaining Gun Dice values shown in the Gun Dice box, choosing the side which corresponds to the adjoining Gun Hits box. One GD hit is suffered for every five gun hits. Once the GD hit is recorded, cross out the contributing gun hits.
Example: A ship suffers eight G hits on its port side. Cross out five of the eight G hits and reduce one randomly selected port side Gun Dice value by one point. For this example a 609 value would reduce to 608 or 509, but not 508. A zero value cannot be reduced. This example would leave the vessel minus one gun die, with three G hits remaining in the port side Gun Hits box.
I Inferno A major fire is burning on board. Mark an I in the Critical Hits box of the ship log and cross out the F hit which triggered it. At the start of each Fire Phase, roll for each active I hit on the Inferno line of the Critical Hit table and apply the results. An inferno cannot be put out. Critical hits that occur as a result of an inferno do not replace or eliminate the inferno in the same manner as an inferno replaces a fire. Instead the inferno will remain to cause additional critical hits, eventually consuming the ship in explosions and rigging collapse. Ships with an inferno burning on board will stop all firing and boarding actions and may not voluntarily move within 20mm of any other ship.

If a ship is locked to another vessel with one or more inferno hits, it must roll a fire danger (D) check for each inferno burning on board the other vessel (see turn sequence).
L Locked Mark an L in the Critical Hits box of the ship log along with a note indicating to which enemy ship the vessel is locked. Note that ships may be locked to each other (both with L hits) or just one may be locked to another (just one with an L hit). Ships with their own L hits and those which have other ships locked to them are all considered stopped as a group and may not rotate in place, regardless of sail settings.
M Mast Mark an M in the Critical Hits box of the ship log. At the start of each Movement Phase, roll for each active M hit on the Mast line of the Critical Hit table and apply the results if any. Cross out any M hit that causes additional damage or gets repaired. Players should not mark mast hits as multiples, like "3xM" or "2M" because this interferes with the ability to track status of individual hits. Mark each hit as an individual "M."

Mast Hit Example: On turn three a ship suffers an M hit during the Fire Phase. At the start of turn four's movement phase the owning player rolls a 2 on the Mast Hit roll, giving no result. The M hit remains active on that ship's log. At the start of turn five's movement phase, the owning player again rolls for that M hit, with a 4 result which causes 10 Sail hits. The M hit is then crossed out (made inactive) and ten S hits are added to the Sail Hits box.
Note that some game functions take into account all M hits suffered during the game, whether or not they are active, this is why M hits should be crossed out and not erased.
O Officer Mark an O in the Critical Hits box of the ship log. An officer of admiral's grade (if on board) is killed or injured. [THIS SECTION NOT FINISHED YET]
P Pump Mark a P in the Critical Hits box of the ship log. Pump hits allow Waterline hits to take full effect, thereby threatening the ship in case of severe damage. A ship with no pump hits may suppress two W hits each turn. A ship with one pump hit may only suppress one W hit each turn. A ship with two or more pump hits may not suppress any W hits.
R Rudder Marked an R in the Critical Hits box of the ship log. One rudder hit reduces to two the number of turning gage steps that a ship may use to turn (meaning that the ship can now only wear and not tack). An additional R hit reduces that number to one after which the ship is functionally unable to turn – the rudder is considered destroyed. A ship with a destroyed rudder must set its sails to a stop position (if possible) and attempt to anchor. If the ship's anchors and rigging are also destroyed, it may not conduct any type of voluntary movement (the ship may be subject to optional drifting rules if those are part of the game scenario).
S Sail Subtract the number of inflicted sail hits from the current value listed in the Sail Hits box of the ship log. The number currently shown in the Sail Hits box is the percentage of ship's speed that can actually be used.
Example: A ship which suffers 7 sail hits will reduce the 100 at the top the Sail Hits box of the ship log to 93, meaning that only 93% of that ship's speed (shown in the Speed box at right) may be used. If that ship suffers another 30 sail hits the Sail Hits number would now be reduced to 60. The ship may now use only 60% of the speeds shown in its Speed box. If the ship currently trying to use a speed of 80mm with a sail hits value of 60, the ship can actually move only 48mm.

Players who want to streamline game play can also choose to use only the first number of the sail hit value to affect the ship's speed. Any sail hit value in the 90's range would be treated as 90%, any values in the 50's range would be treated as 50% and so forth.
W Waterline Mark a W in the Critical Hits box of the ship log. Waterline hits cause a progressive series of effects which result in the loss of the ship. Waterline hits cannot be repaired at wind speed 5 or greater. One W hit each turn can be rendered ineffective or "suppressed" if the pump if not damaged. See the Critical Hits box for the list of waterline hit effects.
XX Repaired Cross out (deactivate) the critical hit in question. In the case of an F hit the fire is considered put out. In the case of an M hit the mast or yard is considered repaired enough to prevent further damage.
Fig. 4 – Recording Damage on Ship Log
On the ship log shown above, the Invincible has suffered a total of ten gun hits, but because of their distribution, only one gun die has been lost as shown by the crossed out medium gun die on the starboard side. Also note that the block of five gun hits that caused the loss of that gun die were crossed out. The ship already has three more gun hits to starboard, and so two more gun hits on that side will cause the loss of another gun die. All gun die losses are rolled for randomly (players may not choose which gun dice to lose). The same ship previously had a fire burning on board (F hit) which was later extinguished. It also has an anchor (A) hit and a waterline (W) hit. Total sail hits so far are 40 (inflicted over three incidents) which have reduced sail status to 60 percent.

« 4.4 Critical Hits
The Critical Hits box on the combat chart controls the ongoing side-effects caused by damage hits. Some critical hit results will be recorded in the ship log, and others will be immediately acted upon in the form of additional hits and die rolls. Each critical hit line contains a line of blank spaces and damage hits which correspond to the die roll lines above them. Rolling one six sided die and cross indexing the result with the corresponding hit type will give the result. Each result matches a damage code which is outlined on the combat chart and defined in detail in section 4.4 above.

« 4.5 Advanced Firing Rules
Advanced rules are not required for general game play, and they may slow game play. But experienced players already familiar with the rules may enjoy these ideas and the historical feel they help to create.

Partial Broadside – Whenever a ship has just come into another ship's field of fire and is positioned so that it blocks over half of an enemy ship's arc-of-fire, yet still has its centerpoint outside the arc, the enemy ship may still fire half of its broadside batteries at it. Note that this will usually only apply when ships are offset enough that full broadsides are not allowed, yet too close to ignore the potential for even half the guns to do damage.

Weather Effects – At wind speed 5, ships firing from a weather position onto a lee target lose use of half or all of their heavy guns due to the ship heeling into the ocean.

Crashing Masts – Any vessel Locked with another vessel (either with its own L hit, or locked with a vessel that has an L hit against it) must roll on the M hit table if the other ship suffers an M hit table die roll result of 5 or 6. Apply all hits as called for. In addition, a result of 5 or 6 on the second ship's die roll will also result in one die roll worth of L hits for each of the locked ships.

Inferno Aid – Ships with an inferno burning on board will immediately surrender to the closest enemy ship and ask for aid. The enemy ship must stop between 30mm and 60mm distant from the burning vessel. Both ships will remain in that position as non-combatants until the burning ship either explodes or successfully evacuates its crew on a die roll of 6, whichever occurs first. If the ship explodes first, the formerly assisting enemy ship may resume fighting. If the burning ship's crew successfully evacuates, the assisting enemy ship will take a station away from the battle area but remain as a non-combatant. It may not attack enemy ships, and enemy ships may not attack it.

Frigate Immunity – Ships of the line may not fire at enemy frigates unless the enemy frigates fire on them first.

« 5.0 Boarding
In order to conduct a boarding action, a ship must be stationary and within 15mm of a stationary enemy ship. The vessels may be locked together, but they do not have to be in order for a boarding attempt to be made. They may be in any attitude to each other, and may have any sail setting. Boarding actions do not take place automatically. They must be declared by a player who controls the ship initiating the boarding attempt, who is then referred to as the attacker for the duration of that boarding try. The player whose ship is being boarded is considered the defender. All boarding attempts are considered simultaneous, and are resolved during the Boarding phase of the game.

« 5.1 Conducting a Boarding Action
Players begin the boarding phase by declaring all qualified ships which will attempt a boarding action. If two opposing ships are declared against each other, only one may be an attacker. In such a case, each player rolls one six-sided die. The player who rolled the highest value (re-roll tied die rolls) becomes the attacker. Once all boarding attempts are declared and all attackers and defenders defined, players resolve each action separately.

Boarding Attempts – Once all boarding attempts are declared, players accumulate dice according to the Boarding Attempt table and roll once for each attempt. This establishes which attempts turn into boarding actions and which do not. It does not matter which player rolls the boarding attempt dice. The meaning of the Boarding Attempt lines are as follows:

Starting Dice – Every boarding action test begins with two default dice.
Ships Fouled – Add one die if any of the combatant vessels are fouled with each other.
Size Difference – Subtract one die if any of the combatant vessels are different sizes.

As players establish the boarding attempt dice for each attempted action, they are rolled. Any one die roll result of 6 means that a boarding action has begun. Once a boarding action begins, no further attempt rolls are required for that action. It will go on until one side wins, withdraws or surrenders, even if that takes several turns. If no 6 is rolled, no boarding action developed for that attempt and players must wait until the next turn's boarding phase to roll again. Note that boarding attempts will always use between one and three dice, and that one roll is done for each attempt. The result will be some boarding attempts turning immediately into boarding actions, and others sputtering along as the crews just don't manage to get across to the enemy ships.

Boarding Actions – For each new boarding action, players refer to the Boarding Dice table to establish how many dice they can use for the action. Once both sides have gathered the proper number of boarding dice, they simultaneously roll them, which is called one round of die rolling. A maximum of two rounds of dice may be rolled per boarding action per turn. For each round of die rolls, each side compares or "opposes" their three highest values against the three highest values rolled by the enemy ship, with the high value for each opposed pair being the winner. The losing dice are removed, and any dice involved in ties remain. A player facing someone with fewer dice than the three dice allowed may add the points from his unopposed die (or dice) to those dice which are still being compared against enemy dice.

Example: Player A has a size 2 ship that is attacking player B with a size 3 ship. Each side has mobilized an extra boarding die by reducing five gun dice for the pending action. Player A will start with three dice: two for the ship's size, and one for the mobilized gun dice. Player B will start with five dice: three for the ship's size, one for being defender and one for the mobilized gun dice. For the first round or fighting, Player A rolls 5, 5, 1 and Player B rolls 5,4,4,3,3. So the top value for each (5 vs 5) are ties. The second highest values for each (5 vs 4) cause Player B to lose one die. The third highest values (1 vs 4) cause Player A to lose one die. So each side lost one die in the first round.

Now Player A has two dice and Player B has four dice and they roll again. Player A rolls 5,2. Player B rolls 4,4,2,1. So the two highest are 5 vs 4, but because Player A now has only two dice to oppose three usable dice for Player B, Player B may use his third highest die value to apply to his highest value, turning his 4 roll into a 6. Since the second highest for each is a 2 vs 4, Player A loses both remaining dice and the boarding attempt has failed. Not only has Player A lost the boarding attempt, but the loss of all dice means that the previous temporary loss of five gun dice becomes permanent.

For boarding actions left over from the previous turn, players will use the same number of dice as before, the only modification allowed being the addition of one die which can be added through the mobilization of gun dice. This may only be done to replace losses from the previous turn's boarding action, and is limited to the addition of one die per turn using this method.

In order to win a boarding action, an attacker must fight until the defender runs out of boarding dice, and which time he is considered to have captured the enemy ship. A defender wins a boarding action if the attacker cancels his boarding attempt or runs out of boarding dice. A defender does not capture the attackers ship if the attacker runs out of dice, and must declare a new boarding attempt if he wants to board the former attacker's ship.

An attacking player may call off a boarding action at any time. Even a boarding attempt which has gone several rounds during which the attacker has made vital gains may be called off. To do so, the attacker declares that the attempt to board has stopped and no further die rolls are made.

Boarding Dice – Each player begins a boarding action without any dice. Dice are only added and subtracted according to the Boarding Dice list. If a boarding dice list entry does not apply to a particular action, it is ignored. All boarding dice entries are cumulative. For example: If a ship is both defender and has an A grade crew, it will receive one die for each. Dice are totalled until both sides have all the dice they are able to gather for the action. Below are the definitions of each boarding die qualifier and its application:

Each size point – Add one die for each size point of each ship involved. A size three ship (a three decker) will get three dice, and size two ship will get two dice, etc. If two size two ships are trying to board a single size three ship, the starting dice for each side would be four and three respectively.
Defender – Add one die for the boarding action defender.
Mobilized 5 GD – Add one boarding die if a ship has mobilized five gun dice for this purpose during this turn's command phase. Players may mobilize a maximum of one boarding die per turn in this manner: Once to start a new boarding action; and later to replace lost boarding dice. A player which has not lost any boarding dice may not mobilize extra gun dice if one has already been mobilized.
A Crew – Add one die if a ship's crew is A grade.
F Crew – Subtract one die if a ship's crew is F grade.
Over 50 S hits – Subtract one die if 50 or more sail hits have been suffered by that ship. If there are multiple attacking ships, use the sail hit values for the least damaged vessel.
Each 20 G hits– Subtract one die for each twenty gun hits that have been suffered by the ship (this includes all active G hits and previous gun hits in the form of GD hits, which are worth five G hits each). If there are multiple attacking ships, use the hit values for the least damaged vessel.
Failed Attacker– Subtract one die if the ship was previously a boarding action attacker which failed with the loss of one or more boarding dice.

« 5.2 Advanced Boarding Rules
Advanced rules are not required for general game play, and they may slow game play. But experienced players already familiar with the rules may enjoy these ideas and the historical feel they help to create.

Weather Effects – At wind speed 4, subtract an additional die from the boarding attempt and add two dice instead of one for the boarding action defender. At wind speed 5, no combat boarding actions are allowed.

« 6.0 Repairs
During the Repair Phase of the game, players may attempt to repair some damaged portions of their ships. Repairs are not usually easy to make, and they can only be attempted in limited ways. All repairs are conducted using the Repair box located on the combat chart. Adjoining each repair type is listed the die roll value needed to achieve that repair. Below is an outline of each possible repair type and its limitations:

Unblock B Hit – Players may roll for each B hit currently active on both sides of a ship. As each hit is repaired, it is permanently crossed off.
Repair Pump – Roll one six-sided die. If the value matches the range shown on the repair table, one P hit may be crossed out (deactivated). A ship may only roll to repair one pump hit per turn, regardless of the current number of pump hits.
Repair W hit – Roll one six-sided die. If the value matches the range shown on the repair table, one W hit may be crossed out (deactivated). A ship may only roll to repair one waterline hit per turn, regardless of the current number of hits.
Repair L hit – Roll one six-sided die. If the value matches the range shown on the repair table, one L hit may be crossed out (deactivated). A ship may roll to repair one L hit each turn. The ship that it is locked to may not be an enemy ship that has not surrendered or given up combat due to on-board flooding or fire emergencies (I.E. - you may not unlocked yourself from a still-hostile enemy vessel). A ship must repair its own L hits before lending aid to other ships. A ship with no L hits may roll to attempt repair of any one L hit suffered by a friendly or surrendered enemy ship with which it is locked.
Emergency L hit repair – A ship may automatically repair one L hit by taking 30 S hits and recording them on the Sail Hits box in the critical hit list. A ship conducting this action is essentially cutting away anything which may be interfering with the two vessels. The only good reason to do this will usually be if a ship is locked to another vessel which has caught on fire or burst into an inferno.
Repair rolls done by A or F grade crews will be modified as shown on the combat chart. Surrendered ships may not conduct any repairs.

« 6.1 Advanced Repair Rules
Cranky Pump - A repaired pump must roll a die each turn in order to keep working. It will fail on a roll of 5 or 6.
Crew Loss - A ship which has lost more than half of its original gun dice and suffered at least 50 S hits may not attempt any repairs to L, B or S hits.

  Copyright © 1996-2010 by The War Times Journal at All rights reserved.
All games shown here may be freely downloaded for personal use only. Not for resale or any other commercial venture not authorized by The War Times Journal.