1916
LAND WAR IN THE AGE OF MACHINES: 1914-1918



Russia
Tactical Notes : Equipment & Defense Notes : Troops & Units : Keys

Tactical Notes:
Russian units continued to use close order troops formation through at least 1916. The Brusilov Campaign of 1916 saw the first widespread use of open order and assault tactics, but even this was exceptional. An adjoining campaign begun at the same time by another senior commander continued using the old close order formations, much to the great loss of Russian soldiery.

Equipment & Defense Notes:
The standard field gun for Russian units was the Model 1902 76mm, which is shell size 5 for game play. Also used in scant numbers was the Model 1909 122mm, which is shell size 8 for game play. All trench mortar quantities mentioned in the troop and unit lists are approximations. Below are the defense values used to establish troop defenses (if any) to be used during the setup phase of the game. These defensive levels are meant only as rough averages. Players creating their own scenarios may want to adjust them for different situations. For example, an "old" battlefield may have very heavy wire entanglements and many pillboxes. A "new" battlefield located in an area not previous fought over would have very little or no wire entanglements and no bunkers. See the Game Setup page or Advanced Game Setup for more information.
Defense Setup:
1914 | Trench ½40
1915 | Trench ½40 | Wire ½40 | Pillbox ¼
1916 | Trench ½40 | Wire ½40 | Pillbox ¼


Troops and Units:
The orders of battle shown below offer a list of average unit values in order to give 1916 players an idea of how historical formations should be represented for game play. Real life units varied in type, strength and quality, depending on their location and readiness level. Overall, there were a huge variety of units created during the war, from forestry battalions to assault companies. This prevents us from trying to list them all, and players are encouraged to use these lists as guidelines for creating other units they would like to use on the battlefield. Note: Most heavy weapon quantities are estimates.
Cavalry Squadron 1914
Units:1 | Bases:12 | Morale:Steady | Training:Average/Poor

Infantry Battalion 1914
Units:4 | Bases:12 | Morale:Steady | Training:Poor | Machine Guns:1 heavy
Light Infantry Battalion 1914-15
Units:5 | Bases:9 | Morale:Steady | Training:Average
Infantry Battalion 1915
Units:4 | Bases:12 | Morale:Steady | Training:Abysmal | Machine Guns:1 heavy
Infantry Battalion 1916
Units:3 | Bases:12 | Morale:Steady | Training:Poor | Machine Guns:1 heavy
Infantry Battalion 1917
Units:3 | Bases:12 | Morale:Shaky or Mutinous | Training:Poor | Machine Guns:1 heavy

Infantry Regiment
Battalions:4 infantry (3 in 1914)
Rifle Regiment
Battalions:2 light infantry
Cavalry Regiment
Squadrons:6 cavalry | Machine Guns:1 heavy

Infantry Brigade 1914
Regiments:2 infantry
Rifle Brigade 1914
Regiments:4 infantry
Cavalry Brigade 1914
Regiments:2 Cavalry

Infantry Division 1914
Brigades:2 infantry, sometimes 1 rifle
Cavalry Division 1914
Brigades:2 Cavalry | Guns:6 horse artillery (medium?)



Defense Setup Key: Each line on the Defense Setup list covers the setup values for a certain year of the war. These values are approximates only, and players with special insights are encouraged to adjust these values according to their own preferences, or for specific scenario elements. Below are definitions of each basic feature type.
1916 The year of the war with applies to the following defense allotments
Trench ½70 The player receives game board trenchlines equal one-half die roll (½D6) multiplied by seventy inches. Other multiples will be forty inches and one-hundred inches. For example, the hypothetical player who rolled a 5 on this die roll would be allowed to set up a maximum of 210 inches worth of fire trenches, slit trenches and foxholes on the game board.
Wire ½40 Same die rolling method as for trenchlines, but applies to acquisition of barbed wire entanglements. Note that for ease of play, the length of each barbed wire segment should equal the width of an infantry base.
Pillbox ½ Values shown without a second number immediately following will use that final value to establish the number of those items allowed for that player. For example: The hypothetical player who rolled a 3 on this die roll would be allowed to set up two pillboxes on the game board.
Bunker ¼ Same system as for pillboxes, but applies to acquisition of bunkers instead:
A ½ die roll means that a 1 or 2 = One, 3 or 4 = Two, 5 or 6 = Three. A ¼ die roll means that a: 1 through 4 = One, and a 5 or 6 = Two.

Unit Key:
Formation Type - Year
Units:number of subunits in the formation ¹ | Bases:number of bases per subunit | Morale:approximate formation morale | Training:approximate training level of the units | Machine Guns:average number of machine guns which the formation may possess | Mortars:average number of trench mortars which the formation may possess | Towed Cannon:average number of towed cannon which the formation may possess. | Special:special weapons or conditions, such as flamethrowers, etc.

¹ — Note that higher level formations will be composed of companies, battalions or regiments instead of bases and units.
 
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